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  1. ´╗┐Epiphyseal plate
    aka growth plate where cartilage is generated during bone growth in childhood
  2. Epiphysis
    End of the bone
  3. Cancellous bone
    Spongy bone in Epiphysis
  4. Metaphysis
    Between the Epiphysis and Diaphysis
  5. Osteoblasts
    Dormant until they become Osteocytes (Bone forming cells)
  6. Osteoclasts
    Dissolve bone structures not needed, or when salts are required for electrolyte balance
  7. Osteon
    • aka Haversian system, is the fundamental functional unit of compact bone.
    • Osteons, roughly cylindrical structures that are typically several millimeters long and around 0.2mm in diameter.
    • Each osteon consists of concentric layers, or lamellae, of compact bone tissue that surround a central canal, the Haversian canal which contains the bone's nerve and blood supplies.
  8. Yellow versus Red bone marrow
    • Yellow: stores fat in semi-liquid state, found in Medullary canal
    • Red: produces RBCs, found in Cancellous bone
  9. Sesamoid bone
    Bone embedded within a tendon (e.g. kneecap/patella)
  10. Diaphysis
    Main stem of bone
  11. Haversian canals
    Small perforations of the long bones which blood vessels and nerves travel
  12. Perforating canals
    • aka Volkmann's canals
    • Carry blood in and out of the bone shaft
  13. Medullary canal
    middle of the diaphysis section of the bone, full of yellow bone marrow
  14. Periosteum
    • [perry -oss-tea-um]
    • Covers exterior of diaphysis, and contains nerve endings that signal damage/breaks
  15. Articular surface
    Where cartilage is
  16. Circumduction
    Movement through an arc of a circle with no rotation.
  17. 3 types of joint?
    • Synarthroses: Immovable joints
    • Amphiarthroses: Very limited joints (e.g. pelvis)
    • Diarthroses: Synovial Joints (Free moving)
  18. Synarthroses
    • Immovable joints
    • e.g. Skull sutures / jaw & teeth
  19. Amphiarthroses
    • Very limited joints
    • e.g. pelvis
  20. Diarthroses
    • aka Synovial Joints
    • Free moving
  21. Monaxial joints
    • Hinge joint
    • Pivot joints
  22. Hinge joint
    Monaxial joint on a single plane
  23. Pivot joints
    • e.g. C1 (atlas) and C2 (axis of the spine) allowing head to rotate
    • Monaxial joint
  24. Biaxial joints
    • Include:
    • Condyloid joints
    • aka Gliding joint
    • aka Ellipsoidal joints
    • Sliding motion in two planes
    • e.g. between wrist and metacarpals
  25. Saddle joints
    • Biaxial joints, move in 2 planes at right angles to each other
    • e.g. joints at base of thumb
  26. Triaxial joints
    Ball and socket
  27. Muscle Origin versus Insertion
    • Origin attaches to non-moving bone.
    • Insertion moves towards origin during contraction.
  28. Muscle Fasciculus
    Small bundle of muscle fibres
  29. Antagonistic Muscles
    They work against each other
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