spine.txt

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Author:
dodgybarnet
ID:
127668
Filename:
spine.txt
Updated:
2012-01-13 17:01:38
Tags:
EMT book1
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Description:
Spine
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  1. Vertebral body
    Weight bearing part of the vertebrae
  2. Spinal foramen?
    Spinal canal made from the Pedicles & Laminae
  3. Transverse process
    • boney bit protruding laterally from vertebrae
    • Attachments for ligaments and tendons
  4. Spinous process
    • boney bit protruding ventrally from vertebrae
    • Attachments for ligaments and tendons
  5. Xiphisternal joint
    Cartilaginous union between the xiphoid process and the body of the sternum
  6. Dermatomes versus myotomes?
    • Dermatomes: Sensory - Topographical regions of the body surface innervated by one nerve root
    • Myotomes: Motor - Muscle and tissue innervated by one nerve root
  7. Numbers of cranial versus spinal nerves?
    • Cranial: 12
    • Spinal: 31
  8. 4 categories of peripheral nerves?
    • Somatic sensory: Touch, pressure, pain, temp, proprioception
    • Somatic motor: Voluntary muscles
    • Visceral Autonomic Sensory: visceral organ sensations like a full bladder
    • Visceral Autonomic Motor: cardiac muscles, smooth muscle, glands, etc.
  9. Proprioception?
    Peripheral NS that provides "Sensation of position"
  10. Autonomic versus somatic ganglia location?
    • Autonomic ganglia: Autonomic nerve cells located outside of the CNS close to the target organs
    • Somatic ganglia: Somatic nerve cells located outside of the CNS close to the spinal cord
  11. 2 types of Sympathetic Ganglia?
    • Chain Ganglia (paired): Stimulate sweat production, Vasoconstriction in skin, ↑ blood flow to muscles, ↑ HR, Bronchodilation, ↑ ATP production
    • Collateral Ganglia (unpaired): Receive nerve input from the organs, Innervate organs of the abdominal and pelvic region, e.g. ileus, Sympathetic stimulation of adrenal medulla produces Norepinephrine (20%) & Epinephrine (80%)
  12. 2 types of sympathetic receptors?
    Adrenergic and Dopaminergic sympathetic receptors
  13. Adrenergic sympathetic receptors?
    • Alpha₁ (α₁): peripheral vasoconstriction, bronchoconstriction, metabolism stimulation
    • Alpha₂ (α₂): inhibits release of norepinephrine (preventing over-release of norepinephrine)
    • Beta₁ (β₁): increase HR, etc.
    • Beta₂ (β₂): Vasodilation and Bronchodilation
  14. Dopaminergic sympathetic receptors?
    dilate renal, coronary and cerebral arteries
  15. Nicknames for Sympathetic versus Parasympathetic nervous systems?
    • Fight or flight
    • Feed or Breed
  16. ganglionic nerve anatomy?
    CNS → Preganglionic nerve → Ganglia → Postganglionic nerve → Target Organ
  17. Sympathetic neurotransmitter?
    Norepinephrine
  18. Parasympathetic neurotransmitter?
    Acetylcholine (ACh)
  19. Stimulation of Parasympathetic NS results in 5 things?
    • 1: Pupil constriction
    • 2: Digestive gland stimulation
    • 3: ↓ HR
    • 4: Bronchoconstriction
    • 5: ↑ digestive tract muscle activity
  20. Acetylcholine activates which 2 types of receptors?
    • Nicotinic receptors
    • Muscarinic receptors
  21. Nicotinic receptors are?
    • Acetylcholine activated
    • Neuron and muscle receptors
  22. Muscarinic receptors
    • Acetylcholine activated
    • Found in many organs and promote parasympathetic response
  23. NicotinicN (Neuron) receptors?
    • Acetylcholine activated
    • In autonomic ganglia.
    • Where ACh is neurotransmitter of both the Parasympathetic & Sympathetic nervous system.
  24. NicotinicM (Muscle) receptors
    • Acetylcholine activated
    • Initiate muscular contraction as part of the somatic NS
    • (i.e. voluntary control)
  25. Peripheral NS, Afferent Division?
    Sensory input
  26. Peripheral NS, Efferent Division?
    Motor output
  27. Neurotransmitter is a?
    • Chemical released from axon across synaptic cleft
    • Acetylcholine
    • Norepinephrine
  28. Acetylcholine is a?
    Parasympathetic neurotransmitter
  29. Norepinephrine is a?
    Sympathetic neurotransmitter

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