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A. __ are the functional junctions between bones.
B. What do they enable?
- A. joints (articulations)
- B. Joints enable a wide variety of body movements.
C. Joints can be classified according to __ and can be __, __, or ___.
- the degree of movement possible
- immovable, slighly movable, freely movable
D. Joints can also be classified according to the __.
type of tissue that binds them together
a) __ are held close together by __ and are __ (__) or only __ (__).
- E. Fibrous joints
- a) fibrous joints, dense connective tissue, immovable (sutures of skull) slighly movable (joint between distal tibia and fibula)
1) __ unite the bones in _ joints.
2) __ between vertebrae help absorb __ and are __.
3) Other examples of __ include the __.
- F. Cartilaginous Joints
- 1) hyaline cartilage or disks of fibrocartilage/ cartilaginous
- 2) intervertebral disks/ shock/ slightly movable
- 3) cartilaginous joints/ symphysis pubis
1) Most joints of the skeleton are __, which are more complex than __ or __.
2) The __ of bone in a __ are covered with __.
3) A __ consists of an outer layer of dense connective tissue that joins the __, and an inner layer made up of __.
a) __ has the consistency of egg whites and lubricates articulating surfaces within the joint
4) Some __ contain __ pads of __ called __.
5) Some __ have fluid-filled sacs called __.
6) Based on the __ of their parts and the __ they permit, __ can be classified as six different types. What are they?
- G. Synovial joints
- 1) synovial joints/ fibrous/ cartilaginous joints
- 2) articular ends/ synovial joint/ hyaline cartilage
- 3) joint capsule/ periosteum/ synovial membrane
- a) synovial fluid
- 4) synovial joints/ shock-absorbing/ fibrocartilage/ menisci
- 5)synovial joints/ bursae
- 6) shapes/ movements/ synovial joints/
- The six are: ball-and-socket joint, condyloid joint, gliding joint, hinge joint, pivot joint, saddle joint
A __ consists of a bone with a globular or egg-shaped head articulating with the cup-shaped cavity of another bone. A very wide range of motion is possible.
ball- and - socket joint
What are examples of ball and socket joints?
hip and shoulder joint
A __ consists of an __ fitting into an __, permitting a variety of motions.
condyloid joint/ ovoid condyles/ elliptical cavity
What are examples of condyloid joints?
joint between a metacarpal and a phalanx
__ occur where articulatin gsurfaces are nearly flat or slightly curved, allowing a back-and-forth motion.
What are examples of gliding joints?
the joints of the wrist and ankle, as well as those between vertebrae
In a __, a __ fits into a _. Movement is in one plane only.
hinge joint/ convex surface/ concave surface
What is an example of a hinge joint?
elbow and phalangeal joints, and knee
In a __, a cylindrical surface rotates within a ring of bone and fibrous tissue.
What are examples of pivot joints?
the joint between the proximal ends of the radius and ulna
A __ forms where articulating surfaces have both concave and convex areas, permitting a wide range of movements.
What are examples of saddle joints?
the joint between the trapezium and the metacarpal of the thumb
H. Types of Joint Movements
1) When a muscle contracts, its __ pull its __ toward its __, causing movement at a joint.
1) fibers/ movable end (insertion)/ stationary end (origin)
H. Types of Joint Movements
2) These terms describe movements that occur at joints: __(15) __
- 1) flexion
- 2) extension
- 3) dorsiflexion
- 4) plantar flexion
- 5) hyperextension
- 6) abduction
- 7) adduction
- 8) rotation
- 9) circumduction
- 10) pronation
- 11) supination
- 12) retraction
- 13) protraction
- 14) elevation
- 15) depression