7.13

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DesLee26
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127681
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7.13
Updated:
2012-01-13 19:01:35
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Anatomy Physiology
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Seniors
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  1. A. __ are the functional junctions between bones.
    B. What do they enable?
    • A. joints (articulations)
    • B. Joints enable a wide variety of body movements.
  2. C. Joints can be classified according to __ and can be __, __, or ___.
    • the degree of movement possible
    • immovable, slighly movable, freely movable
  3. D. Joints can also be classified according to the __.
    type of tissue that binds them together
  4. E. __
    a) __ are held close together by __ and are __ (__) or only __ (__).
    • E. Fibrous joints
    • a) fibrous joints, dense connective tissue, immovable (sutures of skull) slighly movable (joint between distal tibia and fibula)
  5. F. __
    1) __ unite the bones in _ joints.
    2) __ between vertebrae help absorb __ and are __.
    3) Other examples of __ include the __.
    • F. Cartilaginous Joints
    • 1) hyaline cartilage or disks of fibrocartilage/ cartilaginous
    • 2) intervertebral disks/ shock/ slightly movable
    • 3) cartilaginous joints/ symphysis pubis
  6. G. _
    1) Most joints of the skeleton are __, which are more complex than __ or __.
    2) The __ of bone in a __ are covered with __.
    3) A __ consists of an outer layer of dense connective tissue that joins the __, and an inner layer made up of __.
    a) __ has the consistency of egg whites and lubricates articulating surfaces within the joint
    4) Some __ contain __ pads of __ called __.
    5) Some __ have fluid-filled sacs called __.
    6) Based on the __ of their parts and the __ they permit, __ can be classified as six different types. What are they?
    • G. Synovial joints
    • 1) synovial joints/ fibrous/ cartilaginous joints
    • 2) articular ends/ synovial joint/ hyaline cartilage
    • 3) joint capsule/ periosteum/ synovial membrane
    • a) synovial fluid
    • 4) synovial joints/ shock-absorbing/ fibrocartilage/ menisci
    • 5)synovial joints/ bursae
    • 6) shapes/ movements/ synovial joints/
    • The six are: ball-and-socket joint, condyloid joint, gliding joint, hinge joint, pivot joint, saddle joint
  7. A __ consists of a bone with a globular or egg-shaped head articulating with the cup-shaped cavity of another bone. A very wide range of motion is possible.
    ball- and - socket joint
  8. What are examples of ball and socket joints?
    hip and shoulder joint
  9. A __ consists of an __ fitting into an __, permitting a variety of motions.
    condyloid joint/ ovoid condyles/ elliptical cavity
  10. What are examples of condyloid joints?
    joint between a metacarpal and a phalanx
  11. __ occur where articulatin gsurfaces are nearly flat or slightly curved, allowing a back-and-forth motion.
    Gliding joints
  12. What are examples of gliding joints?
    the joints of the wrist and ankle, as well as those between vertebrae
  13. In a __, a __ fits into a _. Movement is in one plane only.
    hinge joint/ convex surface/ concave surface
  14. What is an example of a hinge joint?
    elbow and phalangeal joints, and knee
  15. In a __, a cylindrical surface rotates within a ring of bone and fibrous tissue.
    pivot joint
  16. What are examples of pivot joints?
    the joint between the proximal ends of the radius and ulna
  17. A __ forms where articulating surfaces have both concave and convex areas, permitting a wide range of movements.
    saddle joint
  18. What are examples of saddle joints?
    the joint between the trapezium and the metacarpal of the thumb
  19. H. Types of Joint Movements
    1) When a muscle contracts, its __ pull its __ toward its __, causing movement at a joint.
    1) fibers/ movable end (insertion)/ stationary end (origin)
  20. H. Types of Joint Movements
    2) These terms describe movements that occur at joints: __(15) __
    • 1) flexion
    • 2) extension
    • 3) dorsiflexion
    • 4) plantar flexion
    • 5) hyperextension
    • 6) abduction
    • 7) adduction
    • 8) rotation
    • 9) circumduction
    • 10) pronation
    • 11) supination
    • 12) retraction
    • 13) protraction
    • 14) elevation
    • 15) depression

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