Notable Physicists

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Notable Physicists
2012-01-13 19:49:29

For the quiz on 1-18
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  1. Greek- Developed theory that the world consisted of indivisible atoms.
  2. Greek- Wrote Physics; used deduction and logic to create theories concerning change in many areas of physics.
  3. Greek- Developed a screw to raise water and a principle concerning buoyancy.
  4. Italian- Demonstrated from the Leaning Tower that all bodies fall uniformly; discovered law of the pendulum; discovered Newton's laws; Discourses Concerning Two New Sciences
    Galileo Galilei
  5. English- Published "On Magnetism" in 1600 - first major study of magnetism.
    William Gilbert
  6. Italian- Developed the barometer and improved the thermometer and telescope
    Evangelista Torricelli
  7. Dutch- Discovered the wave theory of light and the pendulum clock
    Christiaan Huygens
  8. English- conceived of the theory of universal gravitation; Principia; 3 laws of motion; optics
    Isaac Newton
  9. German-Dutch- Invented the mercury thermometer; devised a temperature scale with 32 and 212 degrees as important points
    Gabriel Fahrenheit
  10. French- developed a scale with 0 and 80 degrees as important points
    Rene Reaumur
  11. Swiss- Developed theory of pressure of gases on container's walls; Hydrodynamica; law/principle with fluid pressure
    Daniel Bernoulli
  12. Swedish- Developed a temperature scale with 0 and 100 degrees as important points
    Anders Celsius
  13. English- discovered specific gravity of hydrogen (inflammable air) and CO2 (fixed air); discovered hydrogen; showed the composition of the atmosphere
    Henry Cavendish
  14. French- Formulated a law which states that the force of attraction between two charges is proportional to the product of their charges and the square of the distance; unit of charge
    Charles Coulomb
  15. French- Discovered a law that gases expand by the same amount with a given rise in temperature independently of Gay-Lussac
    Jacques Charles
  16. English/American- Stated that heat was not a substance of a body but related to the motion of its particles
    Benjamin Thompson
  17. Italian- invented the voltaic pile, the electric battery, and a unit of electric potential
    Alessandro Volta
  18. English- formulated the law of partial pressures of gases and an atomic theory
    John Dalton
  19. Danish- Discovered that magnetic fields surround current-carrying wires; founded science of electromagnetism, establishing a connection between the two; a unit of magnetic field intensity
    Hans Christian Oersted
  20. French- Discovered principles of electromagnetism with use of electric currents; formulated a namesake law; unit of electric current
    Andre Ampere
  21. German- Discovered a law whereby electric current is proportional to the applied electromotive force (emf)
    Georg Ohm
  22. English- Discovered electromagnetic induction; formulated laws of electrolysis; unit of capacitance
    Michael Faraday
  23. American- Invented the electric relay, which allowed Morse to "invent" the telegraph; discovered principles of induction, and the namesake unit
    Joseph Henry
  24. Austrian- Discovered an effect whereby the frequency of a wave is caused by changes in the distance between the source and observer
    Christian Doppler
  25. German- Helped create science of thermodynamics
    Rudolf Clausius
  26. French- Demonstrated the rotation of the earth with a pendulum and built the first gyroscope; proved velocity of light in air > than in water; namesake eddy current
    Jean Foucault
  27. German- Discovered the fundamental concept of electromagnetism; and used a spectroscope to discover caesium
    Gustav Kirchovv
  28. English- Formulated a law on the relationship between heat and mechanical energy; unit of work
    James Joule
  29. Scottish- Developed the mathematical theory of the electromagnetic theory of light; treatise Electricity and Magnetism is the foundational work of electromagnetism
    James Clerk Maxwell
  30. American- Determined the value of the ohm, the unit of electrical resistance
    Henry Rowland
  31. German- Discovered namesake radio waves; unit of frequency = 1 cycle/second
    Heinrich Hertz
  32. Austrian- Established the study of philosophy of science; known for a number relating velocity to speed of sound
    Ernst Mach
  33. German- Discovered X-rays, for which he won the 1901 (first) Nobel Physics
    Willhelm Roentgen
  34. Dutch- Developed electron theory and shared the 1902 Nobel Physics with Zeeman for the Zeeman effect (magnetism and light)
    Hendrick Lorentz
  35. French- Co-discovered natural radioactivity with the Curies, for which he won the 1903 Physics Nobel
    Henri Becquerel
  36. French- Pioneered work in radioactivity; won 1903 Physics Nobel; discovered radium and polonium; known for a point where ferromagnets lose magnetism
    Pierre and Marie Curie
  37. English- Discovered the electron in 1897 and won the 1906 Physics Nobel for study of conduction of electricity by gases
    Joseph Thomson
  38. German and American- One won the 1907 Physics Nobel for precision spectroscopic instruments; measured diameter of star; collaborated on various aspects of wave light theory
    Michelson and Morely
  39. Italian- Known as the "founder of wireless telegraphy"; shared 1909 Physics Nobel with Braun for its development
    G. Marconi
  40. German- Developed a radiation detector with Rutherford
    Hans Geiger
  41. British- "Father of nuclear physics"; formulated explanation of radioactivity; description of the nuclear structure of the atom
    Ernest Rutherford
  42. German- developed the quantum theory of energy; won 1918 Physics Nobel; namesake constant h
    Max Planck
  43. German-American- Developed theory of relativity; awarded 1921 Physics Nobel for work on the photoelectric effect; developed unified field theory
    Albert Einstein
  44. British- Shared 1915 Physics Nobel for work with X-rays to discover crystal structures; developed X-ray spectrometer
  45. Austrian- Co-discovered protactinium with Otto Hahn; developed the theory of nuclear fission, which led to the atomic bomb
    Lise Meitner
  46. Danish- Won 1922 Physics Nobel for investigation of atomic structure and radiation; founder of modern quantum theory of of matter and atomic and molecular structure
    Niels Bohr
  47. American- Launched the first successful liquid-fueled rocket; namesake spaceflight center in MD; father of modern rocketry
    Robert Goddard
  48. American- Proved quantum theory by discovering that X-rays act as particles in a namesake effect; shared 1927 Physics Nobel with Wilson
    Arthur Compton
  49. French- Founded wave mechanics; reveived 1929 Physics Nobel for the discovery of the wave properties of electrons
    Louis de Broglie
  50. German- received 1932 Physics Nobel for development of quantum mechanics; famed "uncertainty principle", which prevents one from knowing both momentum and position simultaneously
    Werner Heisenberg
  51. Austrian- Provided basis for quantum theory with an equation that was the mathematical formulation of wave mechanics; shared 1933 Physics Nobel with Dirac
    Erwin Schrodinger
  52. French- Won the Chem Nobel in 1935 for the discovery of artificial radioactivity
    Irene and Frederic Joliot-Curie
  53. British- Discovered the neutron and won the 1935 Physics Nobel
    James Chadwick
  54. American- Discovered positron (anti-electron); shared Nobel with Hess; discovered mesons in cosmic rays
    Carl David Anderson
  55. Italian-American- Split the atom in fission; received 1938 Physics Nobel for discovery of nuclear reactions by slow neutrons; produced the first chain reaction and worked on atom bomb
    Enrico Fermi
  56. American- Invented the cyclotron, and won 1939 Physics Nobel
    E.O. Lawrence
  57. American- Directed construction of the atomic bomb as part of the Manhattan Project - "Father of Atomic Bomb"
    J. Robert Oppenheimer
  58. American- Developed the hydrogen fusion bomb; also worked on the Manhattan Project; "father of hydrogen bomb"
    Edward Teller
  59. Austrian-American- Supervised the development of radar; won 1944 Physics Nobel for developing the molecular-beam-resonance method for recording nucleic magnetism
    I.I. Rabi
  60. American- Discovered uranium-235, the fissionable uranium isotope in fission bombs
    Arthur Dempster
  61. British- Won 1947 Physics Nobel for discovery that the namesake layer, or F-layer, bounces radio waves, enabling long-distance radio communication
  62. British and Irish- Shared 1951 Physics Nobel for work on transmutation of nuclei by accelerating protons in colliders
    Cockroft and Walton
  63. Russian- "Father of the Hydrogen Bomb"; won 1975 Nobel Peace
    Andrey Sakharov
  64. German- Pioneered research in quantum mechanics, for which he shared the 1954 Physics Nobel with Bothe
    Max Born
  65. Americans- Shared the 1956 Physics Nobel for research on semiconductors and the development of the transistor
    Brattain, Bardeen, and Shockley
  66. Chinese-Americans- Received 1957 Physics Nobel for investigations into the laws of partiy, with significant consequences for elementary particle physics
    Lee and Yang
  67. American- Discovered the radiation belts that surround earth by means of a counter on the Explorer IV satellite
    James Van Allen
  68. Americans- Discovered the antiproton and won the 1959 Physics Nobel
    Chamberlain and Segre
  69. German- Discovered nuclear shell theory and shared the 1963 Physics Nobel with Maria Goppert-Mayer
    Johannes Jensen
  70. American- Invented the maser and shared the 1964 Physics Nobel with Basov and Prochorov for the laser-maser principle
    Charles Townes
  71. American- Shared the 1965 Physics Nobel with Schwinger and Tomonaga for research in quantum electrodynamics
    Richard Phillips Feynman
  72. American- Proposed the 8-fold way of classifying elementary particles and interactions, for which he won 1969 Physics Nobel
    Murray Gell-Mann
  73. Americans- Received Nobel Physics Prize in 1976 for discovering the J/Psi meson, which they claimed was the smallest building block of matter (it wasn't at all)
    Richter and Ting
  74. American- Developed the integrated circuit on silicon chips
    Robert Noyce