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2009-11-20 23:09:53
biology genetics vocabulary

Ch. 9 vocab
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  1. the science of heredity and the mechanisms by which traits are passed from parents to offspring
  2. the passing of genetic traits from parent to offspring
  3. a genetically determined variant of a characteristic
  4. transfer of pollen from anther to pistil
  5. transfer of pollen grains from an anther to a stigma of the same flower or to the stigma of another flower on the same plant
    self pollination
  6. reproductive process in which pollen from one plant is transferred to the stigma of another plant
  7. describes organisms or genotypes that are homozygous for some trait and always produce offspring with the same genotype for that trait
  8. parental generation; the first two individuals that mate in a genetic cross
    P1 generation
  9. the first generation of offspring obtained from an experimental cross of two organisms; offspring of the P1 generation
    F1 generation
  10. the second generation of offspring obtained from an experimental cross of to organisms; the offspring of the F1 generation
    F2 generation
  11. describes the allele that is fully expressed when carried by only one of a pair of homologous chromosomes
  12. describes a trait or allele that is expressed only when 2 recessive alleles for the same characteristic are inherited
  13. Mendel's law that states the pairs of homologous chromosomes separate in meiosis so that only one chromosome from each pair is present in each gamete
    law of segregation
  14. law that states that genes separate independently of one another in meiosis
    law of independent assortment
  15. the study of the structure of nucleic acids and the function and regulation of genes
    molecular genetics
  16. one of the alternative forms of a gene that governs a characteristic, such as hair color
  17. the entire genetic makeup of an organism; also the combination of genes for one or more specific traits
  18. an organisms appearance or other detectible characteristics that result from the organisms genotype and environment
  19. describes an individual that has identical alleles for a trait on both homologous chromosomes
  20. describes an individual that has two different alleles for a trait
  21. likelihood that a possible future event will occur in any given instance of the event; the mathematical ratio of of the number of times one outcome of any event is likely to occur to the number of possible outcomes of the event
  22. a cross between individuals that involves one pair of contrasting traits
    monohybrid cross
  23. a graphic used to predict the results of a genetic cross
    Punnett square
  24. the ratio of genotypes that appears in offspring
    genotypic ratio
  25. the ratio of the phenotypes produced by a cross
    phenotypic ratio
  26. crossing of an individual of unknown genotype with a homozygous recessive individual to determine the unknown genotype
  27. a relationship in which one allele is completely dominant over another
    complete dominance
  28. a condition in which a trait in an individual is intermediate between the phenotype of the individuals 2 parents because the dominant allele isn't able to express itself fully
    incomplete dominance
  29. a condition in which both alleles for a gene are fully expressed
  30. a cross between individuals that have different alleles for the same gene
    dihybrid cross