Elements of Music: Learning Objectives
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An even pulse in music that divides the passing of time into equal segments.
The gathering of beats into regular groups.
Gathering of beats into two beats per measure, with every other beat stressed.
Gathering of beats into three beats per measure, with every third beat stressed.
The organization of time in music, dividing up long spans of time into smaller, more easily comprehended units.
The speed at which the beats occur in music.
A tempo mark indicating "very slow and grave"
A tempo mark indication "slow"
A tempo mark indicating "moderately moving"
A tempo marking indicating "moderately moving"
A tempo mark indicating "fast"
In musical notation, a tempo mark indicating "fast and lively"
In musical notation, a tempo mark indicating "very fast".
The interval comprising the first and eighth tones of the major and minor diatonic scale; the sounds are quite similar because the frequency of vibration of the higher pitch is exactly twice that of the lower.
Pertaining to the seven notes that make up either the major or the minor scale.
Scale that makes use of all twelve pitches, equally divided, within the octave.
A series of notes arranged in order to form a distinctive, recognizable musical unit; most often placed in the treble
A self-contained portion of a melody, theme, or tune
A short, distinctive melodic figure that stands by itself
The repitition of the relative position, high or low, of a musical sound
Stepwise (conjunct) motion
Melodic motion that proceeds primarily by steps and without leaps.
Leaping (disjunct) motion
Melodic motion that moves primarily by leaps rather than by steps
The sounds that provide the suppost and enrichment-the accompaniment-for melody
Two or more simultaneously sounding pitches
A chord consisting of three pitches and two intervals of a third
A seven-note scale that ascends in the following order of whole and half steps: 1-1-1/2-1-1-1-1/2
A seven-note scale that ascends in the following order of whole and half steps: 1-1/2-1-1-1/2-1-1
Pitches sounding agreeable and stable
A sicordant mingling of sounds
The central pitch around which the melody and harmony gravitate.
The chord built on the fifth degree of the scale.
The various levels of volume, loud and soft, at which sounds are produced in a musical composition.
The character or quality of a musical tone as determined by its harmonics and its attack and decay
In musical notation, a dynamic mark indicating "soft"
In musical notation, a dynamic mark indicating "loud"
Gradual decrease in the intensity of sound.
A gradual decrease in the volume sound
The highest female vocal part
The lower of the two female voice parts, the soprano being higher.
The highest male vocal range
The lowest male voice range
A string instrument; the soprano member of the violin family
A string instrument; the alto member of the violin family
An instrument of the violin family but more than twice the violin's size; it is played between the legs and produces a rich, lysical tone.
The largest and lowest-pitches instrument in the string family
An ancient, plucked-string instrument with a triangular shape.
A high-sounding member of the woodwind family; initially made of wood, but more recently, beginning in the nineteenth century, of silver or even platinum.
A small flute; the smallest and highest-pitched woodwind instrument
An instrument of the woodwind family; the highest-pitched of the double-reed instruments.
A single-reed instrument of the woodwind family with a large range and a wide variety of timbers within it
A low, double-reed instument of the woodwind family.
A brass-instrument of the soprano range.
A term generally used by muscisians to refer to any brass insturment, but most often the French horn.
A brass instrument of medium to low range that is supplied with a slide, allowing a variety of pitches to sound.
A brass instrument of the bass range.
A percussion instrument consisting usually of two, but sometimes four, large drums that can produce a specific pitch when struck with mallets.
A small srum consisting of a metal cylinder covered with a skin or sheet of plastic that, when played with sticks, produces the "rat-ta-tat" sound familiare from marching bands.
A large, low-sounding drum struck with a soft-headed stick.
A percussion instrument of two metal discs; they are made to crash together to create emphasis and articulation in music.
An ancient musical instrument constructed mainly of pipes and keys; the player depresses a key, which allows air to rush into or over a pipe, therby producing sound.
A keyboard instrument, especially popular during the Barouque era, that produces sound by depressing a key that drives a lever upward and forces a pick to pluck a string.
A large keyboard instrument that creates sound at various dynamic levels when hammers are struck against strings
A musical texture involving only a single line of music with no accompaniment.
- Music Having a single melodic line. All the voices and accompanying instruments are performing exactly the same
Two or more voices or instrumental parts singing or playing the same pitch.
A texture in which all the voices, or lines, move to new pitches at roughly the same time; often referred to in contradisctinction to polyphony
- A style of composition in which there is
- one melody, and all the voices and accompaniments move rhythmically together.
A musical texture involving two or more simultaneously sounding lines,; the lines are often independent and create counterpoint.
each voice may move independently.
The harmonious opposition of two or more independent musical lines.
(of Western music) a core repertoire, or the "chestnuts" of classical music performed at concerts continually since the eighteenth century. (round)A contrapuntal form in which individuals voices enter and each in turn duplicates exactly the melody that the first voice played or sang.
A presentation of important musical idea
A process emplyed by a composer to validate the importance of a section of music by repeating it
Process employed by a composer to alter melody or harmony in some way
Process employed by a composer to introduce different melodies, rythms, textures, or moods in order to provide variety.
A musical form often used in setting a strophic, or stanzaic, text, such as hymn or caro; the music is repeated anew for each successive strophe.
A musical form consisting of two units (A and B) constructed to balance and complement each other.
A three-part musical form in which the thirs section is a repeat of the first; hence ABA
Classical form with at least three statements of the refrain (A) and at least two contrasting sections (at least B and C); placement of the refrain creates symmetrical patterns such as ABACA, ABACABA, or even ABACADA.
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