psychology ch 2

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psychology ch 2
2012-01-14 02:59:36

midterm 1
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  1. Archival measures
    • Records or past documents that contains
    • information about some type of behavior
  2. Case study
    • An in depth analysis of an individual, group, or
    • event
  3. Confounding of variables
    • In an experiment, a situation in which the independent
    • variable is intertwined or mixed up with another, uncontrolled variable; thus
    • we cannot tell which variable is responsible for changes in the behavior of
    • interest (I.e. in the dependent variable)
  4. Control group
    • In an experiment, the group that either is not exposed to
    • the treatment or receives zero level of the independent variable
  5. Correlation coefficient
    • A statistic that indicates the direction and strength of a
    • relation between two variables; values can range from +1.00 to -1.00
  6. Counterbalancing
    • In experiments, a procedure in which each participant
    • engages in all of the conditions. The order of the conditions is altered for
    • different participants so that , overall, no condition has an order advantage
    • relative to the other conditions
  7. Dependent variable
    • In an experiment, the factor measured by the
    • researcher that presumably is influenced by the independent variable
  8. Descriptive research
    • research in which the main goal is to carefully describe how
    • organisms behave, particularly in natural settings
  9. Descriptive statistics
    • statistics that summarize and describe the
    • characteristics of a set of scores
  10. Double blind procedure
    • A procedure in which both the participant and the
    • experimenter are kept unaware of the research condition to which the participant
    • has been assigned
  11. Experiment
    • A research method in which the researcher
    • manipulates and independent variable under controlled conditions and measures
    • whether this produces changes in a dependent variable
  12. Experimental group
    • In an experiment, the group that receives a
    • treatment or is exposed to an active level of the independent variable
  13. Experimental expectancy effects
    • subtle and unintentional ways in which an
    • experimenter influences participants to behave in a way that will confirm the
    • experimenter’s hypothesis
  14. External validity
    • The degree to which the results of a study can be
    • generalized to other people, settings and conditions
  15. Hypothesis
    • A tentative explanation or a prediction about
    • some phenomenon
  16. Independent variable
    • In an experiment, the factor that is manipulated
    • by the researcher
  17. Inferential statistics
    • statistics that tell us how confident we can be in drawing
    • conclusions or inferences about a population based on findings obtained from a
    • sample
  18. Informed consent
    • The principle that prior to agreeing to
    • participate in research, a person should be fully informed about the
    • procedures, the benefits, the risks involved, the right to withdraw at any time
    • without penalty, and matters of confidentiality and privacy
  19. Internal validity
    • The degree to which an experiment produces clear
    • casual conclusions; internal validity is high when there is no confounding of
    • variables
  20. Mean
    • A statistic that represents the arithmetic
    • average of a set of scores
  21. Median
    • In a set of data, the point that divides the distribution in
    • half when the individual scores are arranged in order from lowest to highest
  22. Meta-analysis
    • A statistical procedure for combining the results of
    • different studies that examine the same topic
  23. Mode
    • A statistic that represents the most frequently
    • occurring score in a distribution of data
  24. Naturalistic observation
    • A method in which the researcher observes behavior in a
    • natural setting and tries to avoid influencing the participants being observed
  25. Negative correlation
    • A relation between two variables in which higher scores on
    • one variable are associated with lower scores on the other variable
  26. Operational definition
    • Defining a concept or variable in terms of the specific
    • procedures used to produce or measure it
  27. Placebo
    An inactive or inert substance
  28. Placebo effect
    • A change in behavior that occurs because of the expectation
    • or belief that one is receiving a treatment
  29. Population
    • In a survey, the entire set of individuals about
    • whom we wish to draw a conclusion
  30. Positive correlation
    • A relation between two variables in which higher scores on
    • one variable are associated with higher scores on the other variable
  31. Random assignment
    • A procedure in which each participant has an equal
    • likelihood of being assigned to any one group within an experiment
  32. Random sampling
    • In survey research, a method of choosing a sample in which
    • each members of the population has an equal probability of being included in
    • the sample
  33. Range
    • -A statistic that represent the difference
    • between the highest and lowest score in a distribution
  34. Replication
    • The process of repeating a study to determine whether the
    • original findings can be duplicated
  35. Representative sample
    • A sample that accurately reflects the important
    • characteristics of the population
  36. Sample
    • In a survey, a subset of individuals drawn from the
    • population
  37. Scatterplot
    • A graph commonly used to examine correlational data; each
    • pair of scores on variable X and variable Y is plotted as a single point
  38. Social desirability bias
    • A tendency to self-report or behave in a way that represents
    • oneself in a favorable light, rather than respond as one truly feels
  39. Standard deviation
    • A measure of variability that takes into account how much
    • each score in a distribution deviates from the average score, statistically,
    • the square root of the variation of a set of scores
  40. Statistical significance
    • In research, a term that means it is unlikely
    • that a particular finding occurred by chance alone. Psychologist typically
    • consider a result to be statistically significant only if it could have
    • occurred by chance less than 5 times in 100
  41. Survey research
    • -A method using questionnaires or interviews to
    • obtain information about many people
  42. Theory
    • A set of formal statements that explains how and why certain
    • events or phenomena are related to one another
  43. Unobtrusive measures
    • Techniques for measuring behavior in which
    • participants are kept unaware that their behavior is being recorded or observed
  44. Variable
    • any characteristic of an organism or situation
    • can vary