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Central Nervous System consists of what?
Brain and Spinal Cord
Peripheral nervous system consists of what?
all nerves outside of CNS
What is the Ventricular System?
Cavities within the brain filled with CSF.
What does the Meninges do?
- Covers the brain and spinal cord
- Made of three layers: dura, arachnoid, and pia
- Subarachnoid space contains CSF, and communicates directly with the ventricular system.
What cells are found in the CNS?
- Glial Cells-
- Olgiodendroglia: known as oligiodendrocytes
- Astroglia: known as astrocytes
- Ependymal Cells
What is the function of Oligodendroglia cells?
Control myelin production and maintenance
What is the function of Astroglia cells?
Provide transport mechanisms for the exchange of Oxygen, carbon dioxide, and metablolites between blood vessels and neurons
What is the function of Microglia cells?
Control phagocytosis of injured or damaged cells
What is the function of Ependymal cells?
Line the ventricular system
What are the cells found in the PNS?
Schwann Cells and Satellite cells
What is the function of Schwann cells?
Stimulate myelin production and maintenance
What is the function of Satellite cells?
Provide physical support of neurons
Functions of CSF?
Remove metabolic products from the brain
Transport chemical messenger compounds
Maintain chemical environment of the brain
How is CSF produced?
It is produced by the ventricles by choroid plexus.
What is the Blood brain barrier?
- Is a physiological barrier separating the brain and CSF from substances borne in the blood.
- Allows brain and CSF composition to be maintained at levels different from those of blood with respect to proteins, ions and others.
What factors affect the Blood Brain Barrier permeability?
- Infants <6 months of age
What is a neurotransmitter?
- chemical released by 1 neuron into a specific receptor on an adjacent cell that alters the physiological functioning of the cell.
- Their function is to propagate an electric impulse from 1 neuron to another.
Types of Neurotransmitters:
- Norepinephrine: excitatory
- Dopamine: inhibitory
- Acetylcholine: excitatory
- Serotonin: excitatory
- GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid): inhibitory
What cells are normally found in CSF?
lymphocytes and monocytes ratio is 7:3 and reversed in children.
What is the normal value of protein found in CSF?
- Normally small amounts are found (15-45 mg/dl)
- High amounts found in infants and elderly.
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