Chapter 7 Skeletal System

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  1. What are the 5 functions of the skeletal system?
    • Support
    • Protection
    • Movement
    • Storage (calcium)-
    • Hematopoiesis (blood cell formation)
  2. What are the 4 major bone types?
    • long
    • short
    • flat
    • irregular
  3. Sesamoid
    • 5th bone type
    • aka round bone
  4. Diaphysis
    • shaft of a long bone
    • hollow tube of hard compact bone
    • light and strong for easy movement
  5. Medullar cavity
    • hollow area inside the diaphysis (shaft of bone)
    • contains yellow bone marrow
  6. Yellow bone marrow
    • fatty form of marrow
    • inactive
    • found in adult skeletons
  7. Epiphyses
    • ends of long bones
    • spongy
    • red bone marrow fills the spaces
  8. articular cartilage
    • cushion that covers the epiphyses
    • thin layer of cartilage
  9. periosteum
    • strong fibrous membrane covering long bones
    • doesn't cover epiphyses because of articular cartilage
  10. endosteum
    thin membrane lining the medullar cavity
  11. Structure of long bones
    • diaphysis (shaft)
    • medullary cavity (inside)
    • epiphyses (ends)
    • articular cartilage (cushion)
    • periosteum (outer lining)
    • endosteum (inner lining)
  12. Structure of flat bones
    • Compact bone: thin layer surrounding cancellous bone
    • cancellous bone: aka spongy or diploe (flat bones only); covered by compact bone
    • trabeculae: bony portions of spongy bone that surround open spaces
  13. What are the 2 major types of connective tissue within the skeletal system?
    bone and cartilage
  14. Compact bone
    • covered by periosteum
    • circular units called osteons/haversian systems form concentric rings called lamella and are the framework
    • lamella surround the central canal which contains blood vessels
    • osteocytes (bone cells) lie between layers of lamella in spaces called lacunae
    • receives nutrients from blood vessels that pass from the periosteum to the central canals
  15. Cartilage
    • chondrocytes are cartilage cells
    • collagenous fibers suspended in a firm gel
    • lacunae are suspended in the cartilage matrix
    • nutrients must diffuse through the gel which slows the repair process if the tissue is damaged
  16. spongy bone
    • found in the epiphyses
    • looks porous
    • spaces contain red marrow
    • solid parts are called trabeculae
  17. Osteoblasts
    • cells that form bone
    • become more active and form denser bones when under stress (exercise)
    • eventually become osteoscytes
  18. Ostoclasts
    • break down bone
    • become active when bone isn't under stress like when astronauts are weightless
  19. Bone can...
    • ossify
    • grow
    • change shape
    • heal after injury
    • respond to stress because of sculpting by osteoblasts and osteoclasts
  20. Bone is formed by these 2 processes...
    • endochondrial ossification
    • connective tisssue membranes (fontanels) becoming flat bones
  21. endochondrial ossification
    • bone formation in which cartilage eventually ossifies
    • center of ossification first appears in diaphysis
    • center of ossificationt then appears in epiphyses
    • epiphyseal plate forms beteween epiphyses an dipahysis
    • epiphyseal plate (cartilage) becomes epiphyseal line (bone) when growth stops
  22. Epiphyseal plate
    • layer of cartilage between epiphysis (bone end) and diaphysis (bone shaft)
    • growth stops when all of this cartilage becomes bone
  23. epiphyseal line
    location where epiphysis and diaphysis have fused together
  24. Axial skeleton
    • bones of the center or axis of the body
    • bones that are attached to the spine
    • ear bones, face, ribs, hyoid, etc
    • 80 bones
  25. Appendicular skeleton
    • bones associated with our limbs
    • arm, wrists, feet, hip... etc
    • 126 bones
  26. how many bones are in the skull
    • 8 form the cranium
    • 14 form the face
    • 6 in the middle ear
  27. What is a sinus
    • spaces or cavities inside som cranial bones
    • 4 pairs (paranasal sinuses)
  28. mastoiditis
    • inflammation of the air spaces within the mastoid
    • mastioid is bony area behind the ear
  29. Sutures
    • lines where fontanels fused and became bone
    • fontanels form sutures before a babys is 2
  30. Name the 5 sections of the vertebral column
    • cervical (7 vertebra; breakfast)
    • thoracic (12 vertebra; lunch)
    • lumbar (5 vertebra; dinner)
    • sacrum (1)
    • coccyx (1)
  31. 4 Curves of the spine
    • Cervical (concave)
    • thoracic (convex)
    • lumbar (concave)
    • sacral (convex)

    newborns have one big convex curve
  32. Lordosis
    exaggerated curvature of the lumbar area
  33. kyphosis
    • exagerrated curvature of the thoracic area
    • aka hunchback
  34. scoliosis
    abnormal side-to-side curvature
  35. Ribs
    • 12 pairs
    • True ribs: rib pairs 1 - 7
    • false ribs: rib pairs 8 - 10
    • floating ribs: rib pairs 11 and 12
  36. bones of the hand
    • 8 carpals in the wrist
    • 5 metacarpals in the hand
    • 14 phalanges
  37. Hip/pelvic girdle
    • connects legs to trunk
    • two coxal/pelvic bones with sacrum and coccyx behind
    • illium, ischium and pubis grow together to become one bone in an adult
  38. Acetabulum
    • cup shaped socket of the coxal bone
    • holds the head of the femur
  39. fibula
    • lies along the lateral border of the lower leg
    • littel bone.... big name
  40. tibia
    shin bone
  41. bones of the feet
    • 14 phalanges
    • 5 metatarsals
    • 7 tarsals
  42. Differences between male and female skeleton
    • mans pelvis deep and narrow
    • woman's pelvis shallow and wide
    • male skeleton larger
    • angle between pubic bones is wider in females
  43. Which bone is the only one to not form a joint with any other bone in the body?
    Hyoid bone
  44. Name the 3 joint types
    • synarthroses (no movement)
    • amphiarthroses (slight movement)
    • diarthroses (free movement)
  45. synarthrosis
    • connective tissue holds the bones close together
    • no movement
    • sutures
  46. amphiarthrosis
    • cartilage connects teh articulating bones
    • joint holding together the pubic bones
    • joints between vertebrae
    • allow slight movement
  47. diarthrosis
    • most abundant joint
    • contains a joint capsule (fibrous conective tissue lined with a synovial membrane) fits like a sleeve over the ends of both bones
  48. Name the 6 types of diarthroses
    • ball and socket (hip/shoulder)
    • hinge (elbow)
    • pivot (radius and ulna)
    • saddle (thumb)
    • gliding (articular process of vertebrae)
    • condyloid ( atlas and occipital bone)
  49. Ligaments
    help hold the bones in a joint together
  50. osteosarcoma
    • most common and deadly bone neoplasm
    • occurs most often in femur, tibia and humerus
  51. chondrosarcoma
    • cancer of skeletal hyaline cartilage
    • second most common cancer of skeletal tissue
    • normally occurs in medullary cavity of humerus, femur, ribs and pelvic bones
  52. osetoporosis
    • bones lose minerals and become less dense
    • etiology unknown
    • risk factors: genetics, postmenopausal, certain drugs, low calcium, lack of weight bearing exercise and smoking
    • trabeculae are reduced in spongy bone
    • bones in wrist, hip and vertebrae fracture easily
    • treatment: drug therapy, weight bearing exercise, dietary supplements (calcium and vitamin d)
  53. Rickets
    • Vitamin D deficiency causes loss of bone minerals in infants and young children before maturity
    • legs bow and other skeletal changes may occur
  54. Osteomalcia
    • Vitamin D defeciency causes loss of minerals in bones that are mature
    • fractures of verteberal bodies and fermoral necks are common
  55. Paget Disease
    • aka osteitis deformans
    • uncontrolled ostoclastic and osteoblastic activity
    • bones become weak and deformed
    • spine, skull, pelvis and long bones are usually affected
    • genetic or viral
  56. osteogenesis imperfecta
    • brittle bone disease
    • lack of collagen causes brittle bones
  57. Ostomyelitis
    • general name for bacterial infection of bone and marrow
    • usually staph
    • viruses, fungi and other pathogens can cause it too
  58. compound fracture
    • fracture that pierces the skin
    • aka open fracture
  59. simple fracture
    • aka closed fracture
    • skin not pierced
  60. complete fracture
    bone fragments separate completely
  61. comminuted fracture
    • bone breaks into many fragments
    • bone shattered into a community of bones
  62. Angles of fracture
    • linear: parallel to the bones long axis
    • transverse: right angle to bone's long axis
    • oblique: diagonal to bones long axis
  63. Osteoarthritis
    • most common noninflammatory degenerative joint disease
    • usually affects hips, lumbar spine and knees
    • obesity and "wear and tear" are risk factors
    • most common cause for hip and knee replacements
  64. sprain
    injury of ligaments around joints
  65. strain
    • injury of musculotendinous unit (muscle, tendon, junction between both, and attachments to teh bone)
    • usually occurs in muscle tissue
  66. Arthritis
    • inflammatory disease
    • risk factors: genes ,injury, infection and autoimmunity
    • inflammation of the synovial membrane
    • rheumatoid
    • gouty
    • infectious
  67. Rheumatoid arthritis
    • chronic inflammation of synovial membrane
    • systemic; may affect blood vessels, eyes, heart and lungs
  68. Gouty arthritis
    excess uric acid crystalizes in joints and inflames synovial membranes
  69. Infectious arthritis
    • caused by a pathogen
    • Lyme arthritis and ehrlichiosis are caused by ticks
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Chapter 7 Skeletal System
2012-01-14 18:36:27
Skeletal System

Chapter 7 The Skeletal System
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