Biology Midterm Ch. 7

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Biology Midterm Ch. 7
2012-01-15 12:59:24

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  1. Summarize the contributions made to the cell theory by Robert Hooke, Matthias Schleiden, Theodor Schwann, and Rudolf Virchow.
    • Hooke-discovered dead plant cells on a cork
    • Schleiden-concluded all plants made of cells
    • Schwann-concluded all animals made of cells
    • Virchow-all cells come from existing cells
  2. Name all parts of the Cell Theory
    • All living things are composed of cells
    • Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things.
    • New cells are produced form existing cells.
  3. What are the differences between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells?
    • Prokaryotic cells have genetic material that is not contained in a nucleus. They don't have a nucleus at all. Some contain internal membranes, less complicated that eukaryotes. Bacteria are prokaryotes.
    • Eukaryotic cells contain a nucleus in which their genetic material is separated from the rest of the cell. Some are multicellular, some are unicellular. Plants, animals, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes.
  4. What structure do all cells have?
    cell membrane
  5. Name all the parts of the plant cell.
    • 1. Nuclear Envelope
    • 2. Ribosome (free)
    • 3. Ribosome (attached)
    • 4. Golgi Apparatus
    • 5. Mitochondrion
    • 6. Vacuole
    • 7. Chloroplast
    • 8. Cell membrane
    • 9. Cell Wall
    • 10. Rough E.R. (Blue part)
    • 11. Smooth E.R. (Yellow part)
    • 12. Nucleus
    • 13. Nucleolus
  6. Name all the parts of the animal cell.
    • 1. Smooth E.R. (Blue part)
    • 2. Ribosome (free)
    • 3. Cell membrane
    • 4. Ribosome (attached)
    • 5. Golgi Apparatus
    • 6. Mitochondrion
    • 7. Centrioles
    • 8. Rough E.R. (yellow part)
    • 9. Nuclear Envelope
    • 10. Nucleus
    • 11. Nucleolus
  7. What is an organelle?
    Another name for a cell, because many of these strutures act as if they are sepcialized organs. "little organs"
  8. Describe the structure, function, and location of cytoplasm.
    Cytoplasm is the jelly-like substance. It is the portion of the cell outside of the nucleus, but inside the cell membrane.
  9. What is the nucleus?
    The nucleus controls most cell processes and contains the hereditary information of DNA. The nucleus contains nearly all the cell's DNA and with it the coded instructions for makeing proteins and other important molecules. It is only found in eukaryotic cells.
  10. What is the nuclear envelope?
    The nucleus is sorrounded by a nuclear envelope composed of two membranes. It is dotted with thousands of nuclear pores, which allow material to move into and out of the nucleus. It is found only in eukaryotic cells.
  11. What is chromatin?
    The granular material in the nucleus is chromatin. It consists of DNA bound to protein. Most of the time, it is spread throughout the nucleus.
  12. What are chromosomes?
    When a cell divides, chromatin condenses to form chromosomes. These distinct, threadlike structures contain the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next.
  13. What is the nucleolus?
    A small, dense region found inside the nucleus. it is where the assembly of ribosomes begins.
  14. What are ribosomes?
    Proteins are assembled on ribosomes. Ribosomes are small particles of RNA and protein found throughout the cytoplasm. They produce proteins by following coded instructions that come from the nucleus. They can also be found attached to the rough Endoplasmic Reticulum.
  15. What is the endoplasmic reticulum?
    The endoplasmic reticulum (E.R.) synthesizes proteins for export from the cell. The rough E.R. gets its name for the rough appearance of ribosomes on its surface. The E.R. is the site where lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled, along with proteins and other materials that are exported from the cell. The portion of the E.R. involved in the synthesis of proteins is the rough E.R. The other portion of the E.R., the smooth E.R., is smooth because ribosomes are not attached to it. In many cells, the smooth E.R. contains collections of enzymes that perform specialized tasks.
  16. What is the Golgi Apparatus?
    The function of the Golgi apparatus is to modify, sort, and package proteins and other marterials from the E.R. for storage in the cell or secretion outside the cell.
  17. What are lysosomes?
    Lysosomes are small organelles filled with enzymes. One function of lysosomes is the digestion of lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins into small molecules that can be used by the rest of the cell.
  18. What are vacuoles?
    Vacuoles store materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates.
  19. What are mitochondria?
    Mitochondria are organelles that convert the chemical energy stored in food compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use.
  20. What are chloroplasts?
    Chloroplasts, only found in plant cells, are organelles that capture the energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy in a process called photosynthesis.
  21. What two organelles provide eukaryotic cells with energy?
    mitochondria and chloroplasts
  22. What is the cytoskeleton?
    The cytoskeleton is a network of protein filaments that helps the cell to maintain its shape. It is also involved in movement.
  23. What are microtubules?
    they are hollow structures made of proteins that play critical roles in maintaining cell shape.
  24. What are centrioles?
    located near the nucleus and help to organize cell division. They are not found in plant cells.
  25. What is the cell membrane?
    all cells are sorrounded by a thin, flexible barrier known as the cell membrane. The cell membrane regulates what enters and leaves the cell and also provides protection and support.
  26. What is the lipid bilayer?
    The composition of nearly all cell membranes is a double-layered sheet called a lipid bilayer. It gives the cell membranes a flexible structure that forms a strong barrier between the cell and its sorroundings. The lipid bilayer has proteins embedded in it and carbohydrates attached to the proteins. The proteins act as channels and pumps. The carbohydrates act like chemical identification cards.
  27. Name all the significant parts of the cell membrane.
    • 1. Outside of cell
    • 2. Proteins
    • 34. Carbohydrate chains
    • 4. Cell membrane
    • 5. Inside of cell (cytoplasm)
    • 6. Protein channel
    • 7. Lipid Bilayer
  28. What is the cell wall?
    Found mostly in plant cells, many cells also produce a strong supporting layer around the membrane known as a cell wall. The main function of the cell wall is to provide support and protection for the cell. They are made from fibers from the carbohydrate and protein. It is also made from cellulose and tough carbohydrate fibers.
  29. Every living thing exists in a _______ environment.
  30. What does it mean that the cell wall is porous? What kind of materials pass through the cell wall?
    It means certain materials can pass through it. Liquids pass through the cell wall. Carbon Dioxide, Water, and Oxygen can pass through.
  31. What are the two parts of a solution? Define them.
    • Solute: substances dissolved in a solution.
    • Solvent: substances a solute is dissolved in to form a solution
  32. What is concentration?
    The mass of solute in a given volume of solution.
  33. Calculate the concentration if you dissolved 12g of salt in 3L of water. If you dissolved 12g of salt in 6L of water? Which is more concentrated and by how much?
    • 1. 4g/L
    • 2. 2g/L
    • 3. First one by 2g/L
  34. In a solution, particles move _________.
  35. What is diffusion?
    A process (does not require energy) in which the particles tend to move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. Because diffusion depends on random particle movements, substances diffuse across membranes without requiring the cell to use energy.
  36. What is permeability?
    It is the ability of a substance to be able to diffuse across a membrane. Permeability depends on the size, shape, and charge of a particle.
  37. The solute is moving from higher to lower concentration until __________ is reached.
  38. What is equilibrium?
    When is everything is the same throughout the solution. The solution is evenly distributed.
  39. What are the channels and pumps of a cell membrane made of?
  40. What is osmosis?
    The diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane. Water passes easily through most membranes.
  41. Same strength.
    Water equal on both sides of membrane
  42. More water on inside.
    concentration higher on outside.
    Above strength.
    Red blood cells shrink/shrivel
  43. More water on outside
    Concentration lower on outside.
    Red blood cells swell
    Below strength.
  44. What is facilitated diffusion?
    Movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels. Involves help of protein channels. Can't be isotonic. Not requiring energy. Still diffusion. High concentration to low concentration.
  45. What is active transport?
    Energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration difference. Requires energy. Low concentration to High concentration.
  46. What is molecular transport?
    Small molecules and ions are carried across membranes by proteins in the membrane that act as pumps. (different from channels) Requires energy. Low concentration to high concentration.
  47. What is phagocytosis?
    "cell eating" Extensions of cytoplasm sorround a particle and package it in a vacuole. Used for solid materials. Requires energy.
  48. What is pinocytosis?
    Tiny pockets form along the cell membrane, fill w/ liquid, and pinch off to form vacuoles with in the cell. Used for liquid materials. Requires energy.
  49. What are Phagocytosis and Pinocytosis types of?
  50. What is exocytosis?
    The membrane of the vacuole sorrounding the material fuses with the cell membrane, forcing the contents out of the cell.
  51. What is endocytosis?
    Larger molecules are taken into the cell by means of the cell membrane folding around and engulfing the membrane.