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- freedpeople moving toward KS for land and freedom, usually poor, reference book of Exodus with the freeinf of slaves by Moses
- -had large impact on the economy
- editor of the Atlanta Constitution, compaigner for "New South" idea, because of lack of goods South manufactures and disastrous economy after the Civil War
- -idea fails.
George W. Carver
- Alabama's Tuskegee Institute, persuaded many poor black farmers to plant crops other than cotton, like peanuts said that will lead to an increase in profit
- -economy still dominated by cotton, had little total efffect on economy and few farmers followed
- tenant is higher on agricultural ladder, rented own share of land from owner, owned his crop, gave portion of yield to owner of land for rent
- *theoretically could advance up agr. ladder*
sharecroppers work on a portion of the land, don't recieve wages, don't own crop, they are paid half of their total profit minus any debts they racked up
famous tobacco grower in the South, saved labor issue by hiring Jewish immigrants to train Blacks, his American Cigar Company thrived
- Tennessee Coal, Iron, and Railway Company (TCL) of Birmingham turned out iron pipe for gas, water, and swere lines vital to cities
- -->iron was ill suited for steel for buildings and etc --> sold to (Northern) U.S. Steel Company
- -Major South steel centers: Chattanooga, TN and Birgmingham, AL
was a name sung in minstrel shows of the day, used to create Jim Crow Laws, series of laws creating segregation in all public places except stores and streets
Civil Rights Cases
- 1833, ruled that hotels and RRs were not "public" institutions because they were owned by private individuals --> segregation
- -Plessy v Ferguson: upheld LA law enforcing RR segregation, said segregation is not the same as discrimination as long as accomodities for both races were equal, "separate but equal"
Fredrick Jackson Turner
- described the West as a westward-moving line, "the meeting point of savagery and civilation"
- -thesis ignored various cultures, Hispanic women, and evironments
- MO politician, "only a lack of vision prevented opening of the West for exploitation"
- said needed cheap lands and Transcont. RR
- "a western booster"
- govenor of CO, said West was Edenlike garden
- "RAIN FOLLOWS THE PLOW" myth
John Wesley Powell
- geologist, went West and led scientific expeditions in 1869 and 1871 down the Green and CO rivers through the Grand Canyon
- warned Congress that expansion needed more scientific planning and mapping and identification of resources
- director of US Geological Survey, key=WATER, NOT land
- --> said to treat water as community property, said government should create boundaries based on water, and distribute resources
- policy introduced in 1851 pressuring tribes to sign treaties limiting the boundaries of their hunting grounds
- Sioux- Dakotas, Crows- Montana, Cheyenne- Colorado
- -->whites encroach--> more treaties and less land for Native Americans --> WAR
Sand Creek Massacre
- after Govenor Evans of CO tried to end all land treaties w Indians, in November, 700 CO volunteers lead by Colonel Chivington attacked band of friend Cheyenne Indians, even after Chief Black Kettle raised an American flag--> massacre +150
- --> Chivington condemned--> 1865 all Plains Indinas join First Sioux war to attack whites
Colonel George Custer
- led expedition into the PaSapa, disregarding treaty of 1868,
- "squaw killer"
- Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull led Sioux and Cheyenne against Custer, Custer invaded Little Big Horn with 600, killed by 12,000 Native Americans
- Crazy Horse "It's a good day to die"
- led almost 600 Nez Perce toward Canada, freeing U.S. army
- almost made to border before captured and forced to Oklahoma where even more died
Dawes Severalty Act
- ended reservation policy by permitting the president to distribute land to Indians who had severed their attachments to their tribes
- goals: to draw Indians into white society as farms and small property owners and bring Indian lands into the markerplace
- ---> Indian DESTRUCTION
- army came in to SD to stop Indian Ghost Dances in fear of another uprising, killed 146 people
- -final act of violence against Indians
new communities that sprouted to serve those who rushed in each time a speculative fever hit, then followed by bust--> ghost towns
Juan Jose Herrera
- assembled a band of masked nightriders known as the White Caps
- in 1889 and 1890 as many as 700 White Caps burned WASP fences, haystacks, and occasionally barns and houses
- set 1000s fo RRS to fire after certain RR refused to raise Hispanic wages
Collis P Huntington
some sort of RR magnate
Promontory Point, Utah
- May 10, 1869 a silver hammer punded a gold tie into the last of the Transcontinental RR
- *East and West were finally united*
Cattle Drives/ Ranching
coqyboys would let cattle run and graze freely, then go on long drives rounding cattle and taking them over far lands --> sheep, harsh climate and competition--> ranches in permanent settlements to raise cattle
made land $1.25 an acre or free if tended +5 years--> an increase farmers and farming
farms of more than 1000 acres on drier lands in the West, hired workers, really common for them to raise wheat