Electrolytes and Imbalances
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What is the normal serum levels of Potassium?
3.5 to 5.3 mEq/L
What is the normal serum level of Sodium?
135 to 146 mEq/L
What is the normal serum level of Calcium?
8.5 to 10.5 mg/dl
What si the normal serum level for Phosphate?
2.5 to 4.5 mg/dl
What is the normal serum level of Magnesium?
1.5 to 2.5 mEq/L
What is the normal range for Bicarbonate?
22 to 26 mEq/L
What is the normal serum level of Chloride?
95 to 108 mEq/L
What is a layer of tissue covering a surface or organ or separating spaces?
The capablility of a substance, molecule, or ion to diffuse through a membrane
What is a Semipermeable membrane?
An artificial membrane such as a cellophane membrane
What is a selectively permeable membrane?
Permeability of the human membranes
What is a solvent?
A liquid with a substance in a solution
What is a Solute?
A substance dissolved in a solution
What is the passage of a solvent through a membrane from a solution of lesser solute concentration to one of greater solute concentration?
- Example: Water molecules pass from an area of higher water concentration(fewer solutes) to an area of lower water concentration
What is the movement of molecules such as gas from an area of higher concentration to an area of lesser concentration?
- Large molecules move less rapidly than small molecules
What is an Osmol?
A unit of osmotic pressure. The osmotic effects are expressed in terms of osmolarity
What is osmolarity?
Osmotic pull exerted by all particles per unit of solution, expressed as osmols or milliosmols per liter of solution. Measures the volume. Normal is 240 to 340 per liter.
What is Osmolality?
Osmotic pull exerted by all particles per unitof water,expressed in terms of osmolality. measures the weight. Normal 280 to 295 per kilogram
What are the two types of extracellular fluid and where are they found?
- interstitial- in the tissue spaces between blood vessels and cells
- intravascular- in the blood vessels
Where in the intracellular fluid found?
in the cells
What are the 5 main functions of body water?
- Excretion of waste products
- Regulation of body temperature
- Transportation of nutrients, electrolytes, and oxygen to the cells
- medium for food digestion
- lubrication for joints and membranes
What are the three normal sources of body water intake?
- oxidation of food
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