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  1. What methods are used to explore prehistory?
    They used scientific methods (such as anthropologists, archaeologists, historians, and geographers).
  2. What effect did the Neolothic revolution have on people's lives?
    The people began to create better tools. People who had been nomads began settling in permanent villages. They began to develop agriculture and practiced domestication. The invention of the plow and fertilizer marked major steps in human record. Hunting-gathering settlements turned to farming.
  3. What is a civilization?
    A complex culture that has at least three characteristics.
  4. What are the three major characteristics of a civilization?
    • 1) people are able to produce surplus, or extra, food.
    • 2)People establish large towns or cities with some form of government
    • 3)People perform different jobs, instead of each person doing all kinds of work.
  5. What are similarities in the physical environment did the early cultures share?
    In the Nile River valley it flooded yearly, but in the others it only floods on rainy days which is not common. Their climate is warm or hot. They all improved their farming techniques (including irrigation), but later they had division of labor where they would people would work at what they were skilled. They would trade products for goods. The people developed calendars, to help them know when the floods would come. People developed a form of writing also.
  6. What is cultural diffusion?
    the spread of ideas and other aspects of culture from one area to another.
  7. What is a city-state?
    Form of government that includes a town or city and the surrounding land controlled by it.
  8. What is money economy?
    Economic system based on the use of money as a measure of value and a unit of account.
  9. How did the Nile River contribute to the development of ancient Egypt?
    The Nile River provided a natural rout for transportation. The river went in a south to north flow, but winds from north to south enabled boats to sail southward. It also provided fertile soil. It's climate (sunny and frost free) maded it easy to grow crops. The Nile Valley contains deposits of granite, sandstone, and limestone. The surrounding deserts and seas provided natural protection from invaders.
  10. Why were the civilizations in the Fertile Crescent frequently invaded?
    Both the Tigris and Euphrates river flow through the surrounding lands in the Fertile Crescent. Crops could be grown there unlike much of the rest of Egypt. It was surrounded by dry land and mountains also, but they were not as barren and were more easily invaded.
  11. Why did the Phoenicians become traders?
    The Phoenicians had little fertile land and the Lebanon Mountains made migration to the east difficult, so they turned to trading on the sea. Their seaports Tyre and Sidon became world famous.
  12. How did Geographic isolation contribute to the Egyptian culture?
    The egyptians sailed in the Mediterranean and Red seas, and there they would trade ideas/merchandise with the foreigners.
  13. What are Indo-Aryans
    Indo-European tribes who moved in slow waves into India in about 1750 B.C.
  14. How did the geography and climate of the Indian subcontinent influence the development of early civilizations?
    The Himalayan mountains prevented the subcontinent from being invaded. The Ganges and Indus river made the place livable. Monsoons bring the rainfall, which is important for the crops. The timing is important because crops will fail if it arrives late or brings little rain. It can also flood the countryside. Summers are usually mild but sometimes temperatures get really high (120F)
  15. How successful were the Mauryan and the Gupta rulers in consolidating and holding on to power?
    They both weren't best at holding on to power, but the Mauryan was the best empire. In the early years of the Gupta the Indian civilization flourished, but later rulers brought it down.
  16. What is loess?
    Fertile yellow soil.
  17. What is a dike?
    Earthen walls built along a river to protect fom floods.
  18. What is animism?
    Belief that spirits inhabit everything.
  19. Who was Confucius or the belief?
    Confucias was a philosopher who taught about the importance of family, respect for one's elders, and reverence for the past and one's ancestors. These three concepts form the basis of Confucian philosophy.
  20. What problems and benefits did the Huang River bring to the Chinese people?
    It has fertile yellow soil (loess), but it brings devastating floods. Farmers built dikes to protect the crops, but silt collected at the bottom, making the the river level reach over the dikes and spill into fields.
  21. What were the main features of the Shang religious beliefs?
    they combined animism with ancestor worship. People believed in dragons. They also worhioped gods of the wind, sun, clouds, and moon. Shangdi was believed to be a great god who controlled human destiny and the forces of nature. Priests would write questions on oracle bones and interpret them.
  22. What was the ancient Chinese belief concerning the dualism of nature?
    This idea states that everything in the world results form a balance between two forces. Yin is female, dark, and passive(night). Yang is the opposite, make, bright, and active(day). they are not in conflict but depend on eachother to maintain a balance.
  23. How did the idea of the mandate of heaven influence Chinese government?
    The Zhou rulers believed that the god of Heaven determined who should rule Chinga, the Mandate of Heaven. When rebels overthrew a dynasty, they claimed that the old dynasty had lost the Mandate of Heaven.
  24. What is a polis?
    Greek word for city-state, which developed around a central fort.
  25. What are aristocracies?
    Greek city-states controlled by nobles.
  26. What is a direct democracy?
    Form of democracy in which all citizens participate directly in making decisions.
  27. What was the Battle of Thermopylae?
    Battle during the the Persian Wars in which Spartan troops fought to the death against a much larger Persian force.
  28. What was the Delian League?
    Alliance of city-states in ancient Greece, with athens as a leader.
  29. How did the geography of Greece affect the way its early civilizations grew?
    The sea was an important part in the lives of Greeks (many became fishers, sailors, and traders). The geography made it hard for people to develop a sense of unity. Seperate city-states arose in Greece.
  30. Why was the polis such an important part of Greek life?
    • The polis came to represent the center of Greek identity and its inhabitants were loyal to it. Concept of polis:
    • 1.The geographical territory of the city-state.
    • 2. The community that it represented.
    • 3. The political and economic independence that it produced.

    They were alike because they covered small areas of land, they had a population of fewer than 10,000 (most slaves or non-citizens), original fort was built on an acropolis, or hill, and each city-state had an agora.

    Additional: The polis gave ancient Greeks a sense of identity. They formed their own kind of government and laws. They also had their own calendar, money and system of weights and measures. They all had the same language, cultural and religous ideas, and social patterns.
  31. What kinds of governments did Greek BCE and the late 500's BCE have?
    Greek city-states were controlled by nobles known as aristocracies. Later it was to describe a pivileged social class. Social and economic changes took plave and weakened the power of the aristocracies, and the hoplites emerged. Tyrants (leaders able to bring a better life) took power. Illegaly, but they had the people's support. in about 400 B.C. democracy developed more in city-states (where citizens take part).
  32. From the Spartan's point of view, what was the purpose of life?
    It was to defend Sparta from enemies and other attacking armies.
  33. Who was Socrates?
    An Athenian who taught that education was the key to personal growth.
  34. Who was Plato?
    Wealthy young aristocrat who was the greatest of Socrates's students. He wrote the teachings of Socrates. He founded the Academy, that teached philosophy.
  35. Who was Aristotle?
    One of Plato's students who also founded his own school. He believed that every field of knowledge had to be studied logically.
  36. What is an aristocracy?
    A government ruled by an upper class.
  37. Who was Alexander the Great?
    Philip'sII son, who was a great leader, having had best training and education. He was brave, strong, and admired. He spread Greek culture wherever he could. He had his henerals marry women of persian royal family in a mass wedding so that he could bring Greeks and Persian together in a single culture.He created the Hellenistic Culture.
  38. What was the Hellenestic culture?
    The "Greek-like" way of life (no longer purely Hellenic or Greek). It combined ideas and values drawn from the Mediterranean and Asia.
  39. What basic approach to knowledge did philosophers and scientists of the golden age share?
  40. In what ways did Alexander the Great build on the accomplisments of Philip II of Macedon?
    Well he first his father's place as king. He kept what his father already had gotten and invaded up to Asia. He conquered Persia (as his father had planned to do so).
  41. What major economic developments took place during the Hellenistic Age?
    The people prospered from the growth of trade. Education became more widespread as more people prospered. Different kinds of philosophy were established. Geometric statements were found and many other mathematics things such as pi (by Archimedes). They created machines with levers. They learned about anatomy and other medical advances. The geographers learned that Earth was round and that planets revolved around the sun.
  42. What is a republic?
    Form of government in which voters elect officials to run the state.
  43. What is checks and balances?
    System of governmentthat prevents any one part of the government from becoming too powerful.
  44. What is the Pax Romana?
    Period of Roman peace from the beginning of Augustus's reign until the death of Marcus Auerlius.
  45. Who was Julius Ceasar?
    Nephew of Marius, who was powerful. He was in the first Triumvirate "rule of three" made of Pompey, Crassus, and Caesar. He conquered some places, and he put Cleopatra on the throne as a Roman ally. He increased the senate to 900 membersm but reduced its power.
  46. Who was Augustus?
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