IB 140 Practice exam 2 MT II given by Carlson as a resource

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IB 140 Practice exam 2 MT II given by Carlson as a resource
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IB 140 Practice exam 2 MT II given by Carlson as resources
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  1. Which answer best describes how females differ from males in pubertal development?
    A. Females on average begin their growth spurt one year earlier and become fertile one year earlier than males.
    B. growth spurt 2 yrs earlier and become fertile 2 years earlier than males
    C.growth spurt one year earlier and become fertile 2 years earlier than males
    D. growth spurt 2 yrs earlier and fertile 1 yr earlier than males
    D. growth spurt 2 yrs earlier and fertile 1 yr earlier than males
  2. Which is false about USA female pubertal changes?
    A. The average age of menarche is 12.3 years
    B. The 1st ovulation ALWAYS occurs at the time of menarche (1st menstruation)
    C. The average age that females reach their adult height is 15 years
    D. Precocious puberty in females is when there is breast development or pubic hair development before the age of 7 years old.
    B. The 1st ovulation ALWAYS occurs at the time of menarche (1st menstruation)
  3. What is the average age that USA males demonstrate initial stage of spermatogenesis?
    A. 7
    B. 8
    C. 9
    D. 11
    • C. 9
    • Initial stages of spermatogenesis and Leydig cells appear and begin to secrete androgens
    • D. Average age for their skeletal growth spurt to begin. Increase in scrotum and penis size. Increase in spontaneous erections. Growth of seminal vesicles and prostate gland.
    • A. and B. not even in the reader
  4. Which of the following statements is not true about male contraception?
    A. Vasectomy is the most effective form of male contraception used in the USA
    B. Condoms can prevent pregnancy, but do not reduce the risk of acquiring HIV
    C. Coitus interruptus has a high failure rate
    D. Medicinal plants used in China have demonstrated ability to inhibit sperm production in human males
    • B. Condoms can prevent pregnancy, but do not reduce the risk of acquiring HIV
  5. Which is true about In vitro fertilization?
    A. 2-3 or more one month old embryos are inserted through the cervix into the uterus
    B. sperm retrival is achieved by testicular stimulation of gonadotropins
    C. success rate for IVF is greater than 50%
    D. eggs are fertilized by sperm outside of the body and incubated for 5 days until blastocyst develops
    • D. eggs are fertilized by sperm outside of the body and incubated for 5 days until blastocyst develops
    • Success rate of in-vitro fertilization is 25-30%
    • 30-40% of births from IVF are twins or multiple babies
    • Egg retrival achieved by ovarian stimulation with gonadotropins or clomiphene
    • Ultrasound indentifies mature follicles from which eggs can be harvested
    • Mom's egg is fertilized by sperm outside of the body in a petri dish
    • Fertilized eggs are incubated for 5 days when the preembryo becomes a blastocyst
    • 2 to 3 or more tiny preembryos are inserted through the cervix into the uterus
    • Any remaining eggs and preembryos can be frozen for possible use in the future
  6. Which of the following is not a cause of male infertility?
    A. Cryptochordism
    B. Hyperfunctioning Hypothalamus
    C. Past testes infection e.g., with mumps
    D. anabolic steroids
    • B. Hyperfunctioning Hypothalamus
    • Low Sperm Count is leading cause of infertility in men
    • Poor sperm transport caused by ( smoking, xenoestrogens,anabolic steroids,excessive alcohol consumption,tight underwear)
    • Inadequate functioning of hypothalamus or pituitary gland may result in low sperm count or absence of sperm
    • Can be treated with GnRH stimulatory agonists,gonadotropins, or the anti estrogen clomiphene
    • Testes may not be capable of responding to gonadotropins because of damage from:physical injury, non-descended testes, past infection, exposure to radiation or chemotherapy, exposure to environmental toxins


  7. Which of the following produces seminal plasma?
    A. vas deferentia
    B. epididymus
    C. prostate gland
    D. ejaculatory duct
    C. prostate gland
  8. Which of the following is the correct chronological order of pubertal changes in males?
    A.accelerated skeletal growth rate, pubic hair, testes enlargement, axillary hair
    B. testes enlargement, pubic hair, accelerated skeletal growth rate, axillary hair
    C. accelerated skeletal growth rate, pubic hair, axillary hair, testes enlargement
    D. testes enlargement, accelerated skeletal growth rate, pubic hair, axillary hair
    D. testes enlargement, accelerated skeletal growth rate, pubic hair, axillary hair
  9. Which are the levels of FSH and LH from gestation to puberty?
    A. High in fetus, Low in neonate, Low 1-8 yrs, High in Puberty
    B. Low in fetus, Low in neonate, Low 1-8 yrs, High in Puberty
    C. Low in fetus, High in neonate, Low 1-8 yrs, High in Puberty
    D. High in fetus, High in neonate, Low 1-8 yrs, High in Puberty
    D. High in fetus, High in neonate, Low 1-8 yrs, High in Puberty
  10. Which is NOT and effect of androgens in pubertal females?
    A. Slight lowering of voice
    B. Acne development
    C. Breast development
    D. Long bone growth
    C. Breast development
  11. Which is FALSE about pubertal onset?
    A. melatonin levels rise significantly before the onset of puberty
    B. only females have the ability for positive feedback of estrogen on GnRH
    C. kisspeptin is believed to stimulate the release of GnRH and contribute to the earlier development of menarche
    D. Leptin levels increase before the onset of puberty
    • A. melatonin levels rise significantly before the onset of puberty
    • false; they decrease
  12. What is FALSE about menarche?
    A. Females with low body fat can have delayed mencarche
    B. Obese females can have delayed menarche
    C. Increased exposure to cenoestrogens from the environment may contribute to the earlier development of menarche
    D. The age of menarche in the United States females has shown steady decline over the past 100 years
    B. Obese females can have delayed menarche
  13. Which is correct about genetics and menarche?
    A. A higher ratio of testostorone/estrogen results in an earlier initiation of secual development in females
    B. a variant of the gene CYP3A4 influences an enzyme that breaks down estrogen
    C. The gene CYP3A4 is in greater frequencies in Black and Latina females compared to white females
    D. White females tend to reach puberty earlier than Black and Latina females
    C. The gene CYP3A4 is in greater frequencies in Black and Latina females compared to white females
  14. Which is true for andropause?
    A. all the male accessory structures and glands reduce in size
    B. facial hair growth increases
    C. voice may lower in pitch
    D. blood levels of estrogen may rise in older men
    D. blood levels of estrogen may rise in older men
  15. Which is false about androgen replacement therapy for andropause?
    A. may increase libido
    B. may decrease risk of prostrate cancer
    C. may increase muscle mass
    D. may increase bone density
    B. may decrease risk of prostrate cancer
  16. 13. Which of the following is false for menopause?
    a. women with smaller number of total ovulations through a lifetime tend to enter menopause earlier
    b.associated with loss of ovarian follicular activity
    c.associated with dramatic drop in ovarian hormones
    d.women who smoke cigarettes tend to enter menopause early
    • a. women with smaller number of total ovulations through a lifetime tend to enter menopause earlier
    • actually they would go into menopause later
  17. 14. Which of the following are not associated with late menopause?
    a. women with shorter follicular phases in the menstrual cycle
    b. women who breast feed their infants
    c. use of oral contraceptives
    d. females with late menarche
    • a. women with shorter follicular phases in the menstrual cycle
    • early menopause
  18. 15. Regular menstrual cycles and elevated FSH represents which reproductive stage?
    a. early reproductive
    b. late reproductive
    c. early menopausal transition
    d. early menopause
    b. late reproductive
  19. 16. The main reason for infertility in women under 40 years of age?
    a. failure to ovulate
    b.failure to conceive
    c.inability of uterus to implant egg
    d. loss of preembryos or embryos with chromosomal abnormalities
    d. loss of preembryos or embryos with chromosomal abnormalities
  20. 17.Which of the following endocrine changes is false about perimenopause/menopause?
    a. drop in circulating estrogen contributes
    b. increase in release of inhibin
    c. decrease on ovaries response to FSH and LH
    d. increased levels of FSH
    b. increase in release of inhibin
  21. 18. Which is not a risk factor for osteoporosis?
    a.amenorrhea
    b.nulliparous
    c.smoking
    d.obesity
    d. obesity
  22. 19. Which is not true of estrogen hormone replacement therapy for menopause?
    a. relieves hot flashes
    b. reduces vaginal dryness
    c. reduces breast cancer
    d. reduces osteoporosis
    c. reduces breast cancer
  23. 20. Which is true about phytoestrogens?
    a. plant molecules that have a strong agonist effect on breast estrogen receptors
    b. studies have demonstrated that regular consumption of phytoestrogen-rich foods may increase the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle in women
    c. genistein is a phytoestrogen derived from flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum)
    d. People in the USA have 50-80 fold higher concentrations of phytoestrogens compared to people in Japan
    b. studies have demonstrated that regular consumption of phytoestrogen-rich foods
  24. 21. What is false about the regular consumption of tea from Camellia sinensis?
    a. lower rates of osteoporosis
    b. reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease
    c. flavonoids in tea are strong oxidants
    d. caffeine is not the molecule that produces health benefits for the heart and bones
    • c. flavonoids in tea are strong oxidants
  25. 22. Which is not true about pheromones?
    a. Human female body odors released during the follicular phase are less pleasant to males than those released during the luteal phase
    b. Human females are able to detect musk-like fragrances near the time of ovulation, but not during other times of their menstrual cycles
    c. Both human females and Rhesus monkeys secrete copulin molecules that appear to increase males’ sexual attraction to them
    d. Pheromones appear to be responsible for triggering synchronized menstrual

    cycles
    in women who live together
    a. Human female body odors released during the follicular phase are less pleasant to males than those released during the luteal phase
  26. 23. Which is true about Vomeronasal organs (VNO)?
    a. located within the olfactory epithelium on the upper part of the nasal cavity
    b. Skin extracts containing androstenes (androgens) cause the female VNO to respond less than the male VNO
    c. Human adults VNO cells have nerve sensory cells and tracts leading directly to the gonads
    d. Skin extracts containing estrenes (estrogens) cause the male VNO to respond more than the female VNO
    d. Skin extracts containing estrenes (estrogens) cause the male VNO to respond more than the female VNO
  27. 24. Which is true about Major Histocompatibility Complex genes (MHCs)?
    a. the vomeronasal region is known to be the area in humans for MHC detection
    b. human mates with similar MHCs tend to be less fertile with higher miscarriage rates
    c. Women are attracted to scents of men who are most like them themselves in major histocompatibility complex genes (MHCs)
    d. The more similar human pairs MHCs, the better their offspring immune systems

    will
    be at detecting foreign proteins, e.g., viruses or toxins
    b. human mates with similar MHCs tend to be less fertile with higher miscarriage rates
  28. 25. What is the first change that takes place in the excitement phase of the female sexual response cycle?
    a. uterine contractions or fibrillations
    b. clitoris shaft increases in diameter
    c. nipples become erect and size of breast increase by 25%
    d. vaginal lubrication
    d. vaginal lubrication
  29. 26. What is not true about the orgasmic phase of the female sexual response cycle?
    a. There can be either clitoral orgasm or vaginal orgasm
    b. Women who reach the plateau phase do not always proceed to an orgasm
    c. Studies have shown that a higher percentage of women can achieve an orgasm during vaginal coitus than during masturbation
    d. Status orgasmus in a woman is a sustained orgasm lasting up to one minute
    c. Studies have shown that a higher percentage of women can achieve an orgasm during vaginal coitus than during masturbation
  30. 27. What is true about the excitement phase of the male sexual response cycle?
    a. Sympathetic nerves in the erection center dominate and cause dilation of arterioles which results in vasocongestion of the corpora cavernosa and the corpus spongiosum
    b. Parasympathetic nervous system constricts arterioles which inhibits penile erection
    c. Testes become elevated because of contraction of cremaster muscle in scrotum
    d. The only way a male can achieve an erection is through erotic tactile stimulation
    c. Testes become elevated because of contraction of cremaster muscle in scrotum
  31. 28. Which is not true about the orgasmic phase of the male sexual response cycle?
    a. During emission phase of ejaculation, smooth muscles contract from the testes all the way to the urethra to transport semen into the urethral bulb
    b. Muscle sphincter relaxes which allows urine to enter the urethra from the bladder
    c. Rhythmic contraction of the penis and the bulbocavernosus muscle result in a forceful expulsion of the semen from the urethra
    d. Male may experience clutching motions of hands and feet
    b. Muscle sphincter relaxes which allows urine to enter the urethra from the bladder
  32. 29. Which is the region of the brain that most influences sexual behavior?
    a. occipetal lobe
    b. cerebellum
    c. brainstem
    d. limbic system
    d. limbic system
  33. 30. Which is not true about hormones and sexual behavior?
    a. In mammals, testosterone is actually converted to estradiol by cells in part of the limbic system, and it is actually is estrogen that directly increases male sex drive
    b. In normal men, there is an inverse relationship between blood levels of testosterone and how long it takes to achieve maximal penile erection
    c. Progesterone at high levels typically increases female libido
    d. Oxytocin is released during the sexual response in both females and males
    c. Progesterone at high levels typically increases female libido
  34. 31. Which of the following is not associated with a gay sexual preference?
    a. males with multiple older brothers
    b. left handed
    c. having an identical twin who is gay
    d. 2nd finger shorter than the fourth finger
    • d. 2nd finger shorter than the fourth finger
    • this is associated with heterosexual men. For homosexual men it is said they have the 2nd and 4th fingers the same length
  35. 32. What is not true about sexual dysfunction?
    a. The majority of cases have a physical answer
    b. vaginismus is painful, spasmodic contractions of outer one third of vagina
    c. dyspareunia can be caused by failure of vagina to lubricate
    d. penile glans can develop a hypersensitivity to spermicides
    a. The majority of cases have a physical answer
  36. 33. What is a mechanism of action of yohimbine from Pausinystalia johimbe from West Africa?
    a. stimulates testosterone production
    b. stimulates estradiol production
    c. increases sensation of penis glans
    d. competitive blockade on adrenergic á receptors
    d. competitive blockade on adrenergic á receptors
  37. 34. Which is not correct about Neisseria gonorrhoea?
    a. since it is a virus, it is difficult to treat
    b. oral sex can lead to infection of pharynx with gonococcus
    c. incidence is high in sexually active people under age 24
    d. can be transmitted across placenta of fetus during pregnancy
    a. since it is a virus, it is difficult to treat
  38. 35. Which of the following organisms is most likely to cause epidydimiditis or orchitis?
    a. Herpes simplex
    b. Chlamydia trachomatis
    c. Neisseria gonorrhoea
    d. Phthirus pubis
    c. Neisseria gonorrhoea
  39. 36.Which is correct about Treponema pallidum (syphilis)?
    a. Tertiary syphilis occurs within 5 years of the onset of primary syphilis
    b. Only women in primary or secondary stages of syphilis can transmit the infection to their fetus
    c. Nearly all infants born with congenital syphilis will go on to develop tertiary syphilis
    d. Tertiary syphilis can result in dementia, psychosis, and death
    d. Tertiary syphilis can result in dementia, psychosis, and death
  40. 37. Which is not correct about sexually transmitted viruses?
    a. certain types of human papilloma virus (HPV) are associated with cervical cancer in women and anal cancer in men who have sex with men
    b. there are not effective medical treatments for human papilloma virus (HPV)
    c. Herpes simplex type 2 can infect both the genital area and the oral cavity
    d. After primary infection, the Herpes simplex type 2 virus remains dormant in sensory nerve fibers
    b. there are not effective medical treatments for human papilloma virus (HPV)
  41. 38. Which if the following occurs around ovulation?
    a. cervical mucus becomes thicker
    b. 0.5-1.0 °F rise in basal body temperature just before ovulation
    c. pain in pelvic area (Mittelschmertz)
    d. cervical external os diameter gets smaller
    c. pain in pelvic area (Mittelschmertz)
  42. 39. Which of the following statements is true about tubal ligation?
    a. prevents ovulation in women
    b. 100% effective
    c. can be performed by laparoscopic surgery with a 3-5 cm incision
    d. the tubal ligation is not reversible
    c. can be performed by laparoscopic surgery with a 3-5 cm incision

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