Psychology Definitions #9

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ferrarigirl88
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127976
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Psychology Definitions #9
Updated:
2012-01-15 16:14:57
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Psychology Definitions
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Psychology Definitions #9
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  1. Unconscious perception
    The result of sensory information processed automatically below the level of conscious awareness but still capable of influencing how we react and behave
  2. Bottom-up information
    Information about the world that flows ‘up’ from the senses
  3. Top-down information
    Information flowing ‘down’ from stored knowledge which can influence the interpretation of sensory information
  4. Limited-capacity central processor
    A hypothetical construct used to explain why it is not possible to process all incoming information simultaneously
  5. Dual-task studies
    Studies that look at how different pairs of tasks interact when a participant attempts to perform both tasks of the pair at the same time
  6. Multiple-resource theories of attention
    Theories that suggest that different pools of resources are available for different types of tasks as opposed to all tasks drawing on a single central pool of resources
  7. Attentional spotlight
    A metaphor for allocation of attention. Whatever falls within the attentional spotlight receives relatively more processing
  8. Visual field
    The area of the environment that could potentially be seen by an individual at any one moment
  9. Attentional tunneling
    Occurs when attention is ‘tunnelled’ onto a relatively narrow region, and anything happening outside that region is likely to receive little or no processing
  10. Stimulus-induced shifts of attention
    Shifts of attention over which we have no conscious control and which are driven by something in the environment
  11. Endogenous system
    The direction of responses (for example, the allocation of attention) by internal processes (motivation, intentions, etc)
  12. Exogenous system
    The direction of responses (for example, the allocation of attention) by external factors (salient stimuli, etc)
  13. Bottleneck theory of attention
    Theory that suggests a ‘bottleneck’ in the attentional system such that only a small amount of the available sensory information can pass through
  14. Controlled processes
    Those mental processes over which we can exert conscious control
  15. Automatic processes
    Those mental processes that cannot be consciously controlled
  16. Two-process theories
    These theories suggest that automatic and controlled processes operate simultaneously, the balance between the two depending upon the situation
  17. Cognitive neuropsychology
    Attempts to gain insight into cognitive processes by studying the effects of brain trauma (lesion, disease, etc)
  18. Agnosia
    The inability to recognise objects despite normal sensory input
  19. Unilateral spatial neglect
    A tendency to ignore one side of the visual field or one side of an object – despite normal sensory input
  20. Integers
    Whole numbers

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