sem 2 neuroanat 1

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sem 2 neuroanat 1
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2012-04-11 16:23:41
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sem 2 neuro anat 1
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  1. scaphocephaly
    premature closure of the sagittal suture (neural crest derived), resulting in a long skull
  2. brachycephaly
    premature closure of the coronal sutures (paraxial mesoderm derived)vresulting in a short high skull
  3. Metopic suture
    frontal suture that can persist into adulthood and mimic a fracture on an Xray
  4. craniosynostosis
    premature closure of an suture causing cranial deformities
  5. cortical layers
    • L1: molecular layer (cell-sparse layer)
    • L2/3: supragranular layer (s->m pyramidal cells) (corticocortical conn, ass and comm)
    • L4: granular layer (spiny stellate cells)
    • L5/6: infragranular layer (L5-large pyramidal cells) (corticocortical and corticofugal) (L6- polymorphic cells)
  6. primary sensory area
    • -1,2,3
    • - granular neocortex
  7. primary motor area
    • - 4
    • - agranular
  8. premotor cortex
    • -6
    • - agranular
  9. pyramidal neurons
    • - make of 75% of neocortical neurons
    • - in all layers EXCEPT layer 1
    • - glutamatergic/ excitatory
    • - long distance and local connections
  10. spiny stellate cells
    • - only in layer 4 of primary sensory areas
    • - main recipients of sensory thalamocortical input and relay to the upper layers
    • - modified pyramidal cells
    • - only local connections
    • -glutamatergic/excitatory interneurons
  11. inhibitory neurons
    • - GABAergic/ inhibitory
    • - found in all layers
    • - basket cells-target somata and proximal dendrites
    • Martinotti cells- target distal dndritic tufts
    • chandelier cells- target axon initial segments
  12. higher order area
    • -5, 7, 8, 9, 10
    • -multimodal association
    • - inputs from primary and secondary
    • - no topographical order
  13. primary cortical areas
    • - S1(3, 1, 2), V1(17), A1(41), M1(4)
    • direct recipients of incoming thalmic info or idrect contributers to motor action
    • - unimodal
    • -topographical order
    • - no equivalent contralateral area
  14. secondary areas
    • S2, V2(18), A2(42), M2(area 6, premotor and SMA)
    • - recieve indirect thalamic input
    • -unimodal, but respond more complex stimuli
    • - little order
  15. radial glia
    • - neuronal progenitors
    • - act as the railway for migrating neurons from deep up to the pia mater (closer to pia= younger neuron)
  16. reelin
    • -EC matrix protein important in termination of migration
    • - if not present, will cause inverted cortical lamination and lissencephaly
  17. aphasia
    • -inability to use language
    • -wernickes- impaired comprehension, fluency intact
    • - brocas- impaired fluency, comprehension in tact
    • -conduction- comprehensiona and fluency intact, impaired repitition (arcuate fasciculus damage)
  18. striatum
    • - component of the basal ganglia
    • - caudate nucleus (fit over lat vent.), nucleus accumbens (limbic), putamen
  19. lentiform nucleus
    • - component of the basal ganglia
    • - Globus pallidus
    • GPe- external segment
    • GPi- internal segment
  20. Substantia nigra
    • - SNc- (pars compacta)- dopaminergic neuronal cell bodies (what is degenerated in Parkinsons)
    • - SNr- ( pars reticulata)
  21. association cortex loop
    AC- caudate- Globus pallidus- DM (thalamus)- AC
  22. Sensorimotor cortex loop
    SC- putamen- Globus pallidus- VA/VL (thalamus)- SC
  23. Limbic cortex loop
    LC- nucleus accubens- ventral pallidum- DM (thalamus)- LC
  24. Lamina VII
    • - C8-L1
    • - Clarkes nucleus and nucleus dorsalis
    • - nonnoxious (not potentailly damaging stimuli) joint receptors for manipulation of joints to the cerebellum
  25. Lamina I
    - mostly nociceptive (respond to potentially damaging stimuli) neurons
  26. Lamina III. IV and V
    • -nucleus proprius
    • -nonnoxious stimuli
  27. Lamina VII (intermediolateral nuclei)
    - neurons that respond to noxious and more complex properties (sympathetic neurons C8-L2)
  28. Lamina IX
    - alpha motor neurons
  29. Lamina II
    - substantia gelatinosa
  30. ventral horn organization
    • - cells supplying proximal musculature are medial to those supplying distal
    • - cells supplying flexors are dorsal to those supplying extensors
  31. nucleus solitarius
    • - nuclei shared by CN VII, IX and X
    • - functions in cardio and respiratory control
    • - taste
  32. nucleus ambigous
    • - nuclei shared by CN IX and X
    • - muscles of the larynx and pharynx
  33. LGN of thalamus
    • -input- optic tract
    • -output- area 17 (visual cortex)
  34. MGN of thalamus
    • -input- brachium of inferior colliculus
    • -output- area 41 and 42 (auditory cortex)
  35. VPL of thalamus
    • - input- spinothalamic and medial lemniscus tracts
    • - output- area 3,1,2 (S1-somatosensory cortex)
  36. VPM of thalamus
    • -input- trigeminothalamic tract and solitary nucleus
    • -output- area 3,1,2 (S1- primary somatosensory cortex)
  37. VLof thalamus
    • -input- dentate nucleus, substantia nigra and globus pallidus
    • -output- area 4 (M1- primary motor cortex), area 6 (premotor cortex)
  38. VA of thalamus
    • - input- globus pallidus, substantia nigra
    • - output- area 4 (M1- primary motor cortex), area 6 (premotor cortex)
  39. anterior nucleus of the thalamus
    • - input- hippocampus(fornix), mammilothalamic tract
    • -output- cingulate gyrus
  40. LD nucleus of the thalamus
    • -input- hippocampus (fornix)
    • - output- cingulate gyrus
  41. Posterior area of hypothalamus
    • -mamillary body- learning and memory
    • -posterior nucleus- heat conservation
  42. anterior area of the hypothalamus
    • -paraventricular nucleus and supraoptic- regulate water balance (destruction of 90% ADH neurons= diabetes insipidus)
    • - anterior nucleus- heat dissipation
  43. tuberal area of hypothalamus
    • "feeding area"
    • -dorsomedial nucleus-stim results in hyperphagia, modulates wakefulness
    • -ventromedial nucleus- sexually dimprphic, satietycenter
    • arcuate nucleus- influence hunger, secretes grehlin which increases food intake, some DOPA-ergic cells that act on the pituitary
  44. orexin neuron
    -loss leads to narcolepsy
  45. lateral area of hypothalamus
    • -lateral nuclie-feeding center- destuction leads starvation
    • - regulates drive states for pleasure and reward
  46. deep Cb nuclei
    • -Dentate- posterior lobe-pontocerebellum
    • -Embolifom and Globose- anterior lobe- spinocerebellum
    • -Fastigial- flocculonodular lobe- vestibulocerebellum
  47. anterior spinoCb pathway
    • - conveys info on intended movement from lower extremity
    • -input from golgi tendons, spinal interneurons and descending tract fibers
  48. dorsal spinoCb pathway
    • - conveys info about individual muscles in the proximal lower extremities
    • - info from muscle spindles and golgi tendon organs
    • -
  49. cuneoCb pathway
    • - conveys info about individual muscles from the upper extremities
    • - info from muscle spindles and golgi tendon organs

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