Psychology Definitions #10

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Psychology Definitions #10
2012-01-15 16:49:33
Psychology Definitions 10

Psychology Definitions #10
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  1. Outliers
    Extreme scores that are either extraordinarily high or low
  2. Perceptual hypotheses
    Stages in an iterative process of combining incomplete sensory information with stored knowledge to arrive at a hypothesis (best guess) of what the individual is perceiving
  3. Size constancy
    The awareness that the actual size of a stimulus remains constant despite changes in the size of the retinal image (e.g. when the stimulus moves away)
  4. Perceptual compromise
    The influence of the whole of a figure on attempts to make judgements about any part of it
  5. Direct perception
    Perception without the need for integration with stored knowledge
  6. Phenomenological experience
    An individual’s unique experience of perception of the world
  7. Figure
    Reference to the object of interest in a scene, as opposed to the ‘ground’
  8. Ground
    Reference to the background, made up of all parts of the scene (apart from the figure), and against which the figure is set
  9. Gestalt psychology
    A branch of psychology that emphasises the importance of identifying whole objects within a scene as an essential part of perception
  10. Sensory conspicuity
    The likelihood that an object will be detected based on its intrinsic properties registered by the senses, such as shape, colour, brightness
  11. Attention conspicuity
    The likelihood that an object will draw attention to itself
  12. Visual search
    The task of picking out a particular target item from a number of irrelevant (distractor) items
  13. Vigilance
    The task of monitoring over a period of time for the appearance of a target item
  14. Simulation
    The attempt to mimic, as closely as possible in a controlled setting, a real-world situation
  15. Perceived risk
    The level of risk that an individual believes they are exposed to
  16. Risk homeostasis
    The modification of behaviour to maintain perceived risk at a constant level