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2012-07-04 12:26:09

Chapter 5
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  1. Pruritus
  2. Exudate
    Fluid, cells or other substances that are slowly exuded or discharged from csells or blood vessesl through small poores or breaks in the cell membrane, usually as a result of inflammation or injury
  3. Inflammation
    A protective responce of body tissue to irritation, injury, or invasion by diseas-producing organisms
  4. Erythema
  5. Organic disease
    Results in the structural change in an organ that interferes with its functioning
  6. Functional disease
    a disease in which there is an abnormal change in the function of an organ, but no structural alteration in the tissue involved opposes to organ disease, many nervous and mental diseases are classified as functional.
  7. Chronic
    develops slowly; persist over long period of time.
  8. Acute
    • Begins abruptly with
    • marked intensity of severe signs/symptoms often subsides after a period of
    • treatment.
  9. Four risk factors for the development of disease
    • 1. Genetic
    • 2. Age
    • 3. Physiologic
    • 4. Environment & Lifestyle.
    • O- Onset, timing duration
    • P- Precipitation, provocative, palliative
    • (what causes it, makes it better or worse)
    • Q- Quality, Quantity
    • R- Region, Radiation
    • S-Severity Scale (0-10)
    • T-Treatment
    • U-Understanding
    • V-Values
  11. Origins of disease
    • 1. Hereditay
    • 2. Congenital
    • 3. Inflamation
    • 4. Degenerative
    • 5. Infection
    • 6. Deficiency
    • 7. Metablic
    • 8. Neoplasitc
    • 9. Traumatic
    • 10. Environmental
    • 11. Autoimmune
  12. Tugor
    Refers to elasticity of the skin. Caused by outward pressure of the cells & interstitial fluid. If dehydrated, decreased skin turgor lax skin does not snap back into position. Increased turgor is smooth, shiny, taut can’t be grasped. Hairless extremities sometimes signify arterial disorders with reduced arterial blood flow.
  13. Bruits
    Abnormal "swishing" sounds heard over organs, glands and arteries. Results from an abnormality in an artery resulting from a narrow or partially occluded artery.
  14. Thrill
    Vibrating sensation you perceive as you palpate along an artery.
  15. Tachypnea
    Rapid rate of breathing (greater than 24 resperations per min)
  16. Bradypnea
    Slow breathing (10 resperations or lower per min)
  17. The Lub-bupp sound of the heart is caused by?
    The closure of the atrioventricular and semilunar valves
  18. How long do you auscultate bowel sounds?
    1 minute per quadrant.
  19. Paralytic ileus
    An obstruction of the intestine due to paralsis of the intestinal muscle.
  20. Edema
    Excessive accumulation of fluid in the interstitial spaces cuased by leaking of fluid from veins and capillary beds.
  21. How do you check for pitting edema?
    Press against bony prominence for 5 seconds and check for rebounding and presence of indentation.
  22. Pitting Edema Scale
    • 1+ Trace - 2mm
    • 2+ Mild - 4mm 10-15 sec. rebound
    • 3+ Moderate - 6mm or more 30-60 sec rebound
    • 4+ Severe - 8mm 2-5 min rebound
  23. Borborygmi
    Loud, gurgling sounds that accompany increased motility of the bowel.
  24. Etiology
    Cause, origin; specifically : the cause of a disease or abnormal condition.
  25. Diaphoresis
    The secretion of sweat, especially the profuse secretion associated with elevated body temperature, physical exertion, exposure to heat and mental or emotional stress.
  26. ABC in & out PS
    • A- Airway
    • B- Breathing
    • C- Circulation
    • In - what's going in? (IV, Enterally, check tubing and IV sites, rate of oxygen delivery and device)
    • What's going out? (Drainage color and amount)
    • P- Pain
    • S- Saftey
  27. Kyphosis
    Humpback, an exaggeration of the posterir curvature of the thoracic spine.
  28. Lordosis
    Swayback, an increased lumbar curvature.
  29. Scoliosis
    A lateral spinal curvature.
  30. Ischemia
    deficient supply of oxygenated blood to a body part (as the heart or brain) that is due to obstruction or narrowing of an artery.
  31. Disease
    A pathologic conditon of the body, any disturbance of a structure or function of the body.
  32. Autioimmune response
    the body develops antibodies against its own tissue or body substances
  33. Interstitial spaces
    Spaces within body tissues that are outside the blood vessels.  Also known as interstitial compartments.