Organisms that mostly cannot be seen by they naked eye because they are microscopic
Microorganisms usually have how many cells?
One - they usually exist as single cells, as a unicellular entity
Can microorganisms generate energy and grow without the help of other cells?
What are biofilms?
Communities of microorganisms, where they are able to communicate with one another in order to initiate group behavior
The true causes of infectious diseases was unknown until when?
The 19th century
Which disease killed 30-60% of the population of Europe at the end of the 14th century?
The plague (Yersinia pestis)
What was the cause of the potatoe famine in Ireland where more than a million people died of starvation?
Fungal disease of potatoes, blight (Phytophtora infestans)
Poor medical knowledge prior to the 19th century led to what?
Inaccurate theory to explain infectious disease cases/outbreaks, such as the miasma theory
Use of inappropriate treatment, for example bleeding, which caused even more damage
"Witch hunt" and persecution based on ethnicity and/or religion
When were microscopes discovered?
Beginning of the 17th century
Who saw the first microorganisms?
In 1684 Antoni van Leeuwenhoek published the first drawing of what he called "wee animalcules"
Who is considered to be the father of microbiology?
Antoni van Leeuwenhoek
What is spontaneous generation?
Hypothesis that some vital force can create living organisms from inanimate objects. It was widely accepted throughout the middle ages and into the later half of the 19th century because it fit nicely with most religious views.
Who demonstrated that maggots did not develop from rotten meat?
In the mid 1600s, Francesco Redi showed that no maggots developed as long as the meat was covered
What did Lazzaro Spallanzani show in the late 1700s?
That nothing grew in liquids that were boiled and stored in closed containers.
What did proponents of spontaneous generation argue in response to Lazzaro Spallanzani's proof that nothing grows in boiled and contained liquids?
They argued that a free supply of air was required for the "vital force" to reach the liquid
Who finally disproved spontaneous generation and when?
Louis Pasteur in 1861
What did the experiments of Louis Pasteur help develop?
Effective sterilization procedures, such as pasteurization
Vaccines for multiple diseases, such as anthrax, fowl cholera and rabies
When was the first successful administration of the vaccine against rabies?