western civ flashcards.txt
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The most important capital crime for early-modern women was:
- More women were tried for this capital crime than any other during the early modern period.
During the Renaissance slaves came from:
Albania, Russia, and Africa.
A major difference b/t northern and Italian humanism is:
that northern humanism stressed social reform based on Christian ideals. Northern humanists were interested in the development of an ethical way of life, combining the best elements of classical and Christian cultures; they wanted to reform society based on these ideals.
The court of Star Chamber in England was used to:
check aristocratic power. The Star Chamber was designed to prevent noble interference in the administration of justice and combat fur-collar crime; this measure helped to strengthn the English monarchy.
The great English Bible published in 1611 is called the Authorized Bible because:
it was commissioned by King James 1. The King James Bible was based on the best Scriptural research possible at the time.
The first phase of the Thirty Years' War ended with:
the Battle of the White Mountain. At this battle, the Catholic forces of Emperor Ferdinand II crushed the Protestant Bohemians.
The term Renaissance means:
a resurgence of art and culture in the fourteenth through sixteenth centuries. The term Renaissance refers to the resurgence in art and culture characterized by individualism, humanism, and a reverence for antiquity.
The Saint Bartholomew's Day massacre was sparked by:
the assassination of Gaspard de Coligny. The assassination of de Coligny sparked weeks of bloody rioting in Paris and other cities during which thousands of Huguenots were killed.
a Christian education for moral and intellectual improvement. Erasmus wrote among other texts The Education of a Christian Prince.
The Reaissance artist of talent and ability often lived a life of:
economic security through patronage. Being the beneficiary of upper-class patronage, talented artists achieved economic security and sometimes great wealth.
The ten southern provinces of the Netherlands, known as the Spanish Netherlands, became the future:
Belgium. What became the Netherlands were then the largely Protestant provinces united through the Union of Utrecht. The ten provinces which eventually became catholic Belgium remained under Spanish Hubsburg control after teh seven northern Protestant provinces declared their independence of Spain.
In The Prince Machiavelli argues that the ruler should not:
concern himself with the way things ought to be, but with the way things are. This cold, pragmatic argument represented a significan break with medieval thought.
France was saved from religious anarchy when:
religious principles were set aside for political necessity b King Henry IV of Navarre. Although a Protestant, as a politique King Henry IV of Navarre converted to Catholicism shortly after coming to the French throne.
All of the following statments accurately describes Anabaptism except:the church was a voluntary association of people who had experience an inner light, each church or community was entirely separate, members of the church are predestined for salvation, each church must tolerate every other church
Members of the church are predestined for salvation
Thomas More's ideas as best expressed in his book Utopia, centered on the belief that:
corruption and war are due to acquisitiveness and private property. The concept that corruption and war were due to society's flawed institutions, such as private property, and not to the inherently corrupt nature of humanity, was extremely racial.
According to Luther, salvation comes through:
faith. Luther believed that salvation comes through faith alone; faith is the free and arbitrary gift of God.
The cornerstone of Calvin's theology was his belief in:
predestination. With implacable logic Calvin argued that God, all-knowing and all-powerful, had already determined who would be saved: predestination; this belief undermines the concept of free will.
Overall, Henry VIII's religious reformation in England occurred:
mostly for political reasons. The problem of producing a male heir and thus sparing England civil war was a key factor in Henry's decision to divorce Catherine of Aragon.
The Reformation in Germany resulted in:
a politically weaker Germany. The competition between Catholic Emperor Charles V and the Lutheran German princes (exacerbated by the Habsburg-Valois wars) added greatly to the political fragmentatio of Germany
The great Christian humanists of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries believed that:
reform could be achieved through education and social change. The Christian humanists, with a long tradition, believed that reform could be achieved through education and social change.
With the help of Parliament, Henry VII advanced the Reformation in England through all of the following except: the Supremacy Act, the seizure of monasteries, the Edict of Nantes and the Act for the Submission of the Clergy.
The Edict of Nantes conferred special privileges upon French Protestants.
Calvinism was appealing to the middle classes for each of the following reasons except: its stress on leisure and ostentatious living, its moral emphasis, its approval of any job well done, hard work, and succes, and its intellectual emphases.
Calvinist doctrine believed in hard work done well and suces, gaining the approval of the middle classes.
The Peace of Westphalia, which ended the Thirty Years' War,:
completely undermined the Holy Roman Empire as a viable state. THe Peace of Westphalia recognized the sovereign, independent authority of the princes of the Holy Roman Empire that had no central government, courts, or other measure of controlling them.
Luther's German translation of the New Testament:
democratized religion. The invention fo the printing press and Luther's talent with the German language, as well as his belief that everyone should read the Bible, brought the message of the Bible to many people.
The art of the High Renaissance in Italy is characterzed by:
classical balance, harmony, and restraint.
The empire of Charles V included all of the following except: France, Austria, Aragon, Mexico.
France. The kingdom France was a state unto itself and an enemy of Charles V.
Which of the following did not become a mainly Protestant region during the Reformation: Scotland, Denmark, France, Brandenburg.
France. Though many French became Huguenots, France remained a mainly Catholic country.
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