Cell Bio I-E

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  1. Elements
    a substance that cannot be broken down or converted into other substances by chemical means
  2. Atoms
    the smallest particle of an element that still retains its distinctive chemical properties
  3. molcules
    atoms that are grouped together to form other substances
  4. Electron
    negatively charged particle that surrounds the positively charged nucleus
  5. protons
    prositively charged particles that are inside the nucleus
  6. neutrons
    neutral or no charged particles that are inside the nucleus
  7. atomic number
    the number of protons in the nucleus which determines the place on the periodic table
  8. isotopes
    atoms with the same number of protons but a different number of electrons
  9. Anions
    The addition of an electron to an atom
  10. Cation
    The subtraction of an electron from an atom
  11. Chemical reaction
    • a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another
    • spontaneous or not
  12. covalent bonds
    bond made by atoms and molecules where they share electrons
  13. Electronegativity
    describes the ability to attract and capture electrons from other atoms
  14. ionic bond
    a bond that occurs between atoms when one atoms captures electrons from the other atom
  15. enzymes
    control the making and breaking of bonds in living organisms
  16. polar structures
    • the positive charge is concentrated toward one end of a molecule and the negative charge is concentrated toward the other end
    • allow molecules to interact through electrical forces
  17. hydrophilic and hydrophobic
    water loving and water fearing
  18. Characteristics of water
    • polar (negative O and positive H)
    • hydrogen bonds make water liquid at room temp
    • hydrophobic and hydrophilic
  19. organic molecules
    small and large molecules that are made of carbon
  20. four major families of organic molecules
    • sugars (carbohydrates)
    • fatty acids (lipids)
    • amino acids
    • nucleic acids
  21. Sugars or Carbohydrates
    • monosaccharides - smallest compounds
    • disaccharides - 2 or monosaccharides grouped together
    • polysaccharides - 3 or more grouped together (thousands)
    • production and storage of energy
    • mechanical supports (cellulose plant cell walls) (chitin- bug exoskeleton and fungi cell walls)
  22. isomers
    a set of molecules with the same chemical formula but different structures
  23. cells use 2 basic polysaccharides
    • glycogen in animals
    • starch in plants
  24. lipids or fatty acids
    • 2 distinct regions
    • 1) long chain of hydrophobic hydrocarbons
    • 2) carboxyl group that is hydrophilic
    • food reserve in cells
    • broken down the have 6 times as much usable energy as glucose
    • stored in cytoplasm
    • long chains or rings
  25. amphipathic
    moleucles like lipids that have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions
  26. two types of fatty acides
    • saturated - no double bonded carbons at the bottom (hard)
    • unsaturated- double bonded carbons at the bottom (soft)
  27. most important function of fatty acids
    • formation of membranes
    • phospholipids make the bilayer of the cell membranes
  28. amino acids
    • all pocess a carboxylic acid groups and an amino group, both linked to the sam e carbon atom called the alpha carbon
    • used to build proteins that makes a 3D shape unique to each protein
    • structural polarity
    • 20 different types
  29. peptide bond
    the covalent link between two adjacent amino acids in a protein chain
  30. Nucleoside
    a molecule made of nitrogen-containing ring compound linked to a five carbon sugar which is either ribose or deoxyribose
  31. Nucleotide
    a nucleoside sporting one or more phosphate groups attacted to the sugar
  32. four nucleotide bases and catagory names
    • adenine - thymine
    • guanine- cytosine
    • and uricil on RNA
    • A - G are called purines
    • C-T-U are called pyrimadines
  33. adenosine tryphosphate or ATP
    a ribonucleotide that praticipates inthe transfer of energy in hundreds of reactions
  34. two types of nucleic acids
    RNA, and DNA
  35. what encodes the genetic info
    • the linear sequence of nucleoties in DNA and RNA moleules
    • DNA long term
    • RNA short term to travel out of nucleus to make proteins
  36. macromolcules
    • most abundant of the carbon containing molecules in a living cell based on weight
    • principal building blocks from which a cell is made
    • components that confer the distinctive properties
    • polymers that are constructed by covalently linking small chains or polymers
  37. proteins
    • perform thousands of different functions
    • enzymes
    • structure
    • hold unique conformations because of noncovalent bonds
  38. three forces of noncovalent bonds
    elctrostatic attractions and hyrogen bonding and van der Waal's forces
  39. Electrostatic attractions
    • strong unless in water
    • enzymes use the positive and negatives to guide things into prositions
  40. Hydrogen bonds
    holds the two strands of the DNA together
  41. van der Waal's forces
    attractions that form because of fluctuating electrons between molecules that are close to each other
  42. functional groups
    are specific groups of atoms within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.
  43. molecular formulas
    A molecular formula is based on the actual number of atoms of each type in the compound.
  44. Structural formulas
    is a graphical representation of the molecular structure, showing how the atoms are arranged.
Card Set
Cell Bio I-E
Cellular Chemistry
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