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  1. why people need appearl:
    • - protection from the weather
    • -people want to be in step with the times
    • -desire to be accepted and well regared by others
    • -modesty
    • -self adornment
  2. how fashion emerge
    • -fashion industry conducts research
    • -obtain the latest information on consumer lifestyles, buying patterns, product developments, fibers and fabrics, technological advancements for production
    • -incorporate research results in developing new fashion items
  3. study of market segments:
    • The 21st century is a time of freedom of choice. Manufacturers and retailers are more aware of the wants and needs of consumers. designers have acknowledged that they cannot alone decide what their customers want, it is necessary to understand what motivates them to buy.
    • Every business determines customer's needs and what they can best provide at a profit.
  4. Market segmentation:
    .dividing the population into smaller more similar groups.
  5. target marketing:
    attract a specific type of customer
  6. a market
    group of people with $ to spend and the willingness and power to spend it.
  7. demographics:
    the study of various objective characteristics of the population such as age, education, family, life cycle, geographic concentration, income, occupation and population.
  8. Family life cycle
    • young unmarried
    • newly married
    • full nest I
    • full nest II
    • full nest III
    • empty nest I
    • empty nest II
    • sole survivor I
    • sole survivor II
  9. Psychographics
    • the subjective study of characteristics that describe motivation to buy such as attitudes, ethnicity, interests, lifestyle, opinions and personality.
    • this segmentation narrows that field to those with similar characteristics so that specific marketing tactis can be more effectively directed. they should be used in conjunction with other considerations, such as demographics and factors such as social issues and class structure.
  10. buying motives
    the market is evaluated on the basis of motives
    • emotional motives - based on feeling, status and prestige
    • rational motives - logical thinking and decision making, is it appropriate
    • product motives - based on quality or image of a product
    • patronage motives - buying from a vertain retailer based on reputation and image, merchandise assortment, location, customer service, price and shopping as entertainment
  11. buying habits
    the 20th century, conumser buying habits began to change due to:
    • -Catalogs: every major retailer offered numerous catalogs through out the year, (as did separate Catalog retailers).
    • This eliminated the need for consumers to visit a favourite place to shop or haveing to go from store to store to find a specific product. Many working and time pressured shoppers changed their approach to shopping.

    • -Internet: 10 million conneted by the mid 1990's, made online shopping attractive to both retailers and consumers, enabling consumers to shop from home or work.
    • subscribers could shop with ease, effortlessly interacting the e-retailers. every type of fashion product, at most every price point could be viewed by way of virtual mannequins and delivered in a timely manner.
  12. Spending power-
    is dependant on income, people with money create markets
    • -disposable income - money left after paying taxes, used to pay for life's necessities
    • -discretionary income - money left after paying for the necessities such as rent, utilities, food, transportation and basic clothing
  13. Sociological considerations
    • Lifestyle - an example where necessities change in clothing design.
    • 1. studnets of all ages once dressed more formally (dress codes in effext but the trend has moved towards wearing fashionable clothing (standard dress).
    • an effort to change this notion (uniform) in order to eliminate clothing competition is being supported by legislation.

    2. Casual dressing - part of every age groups lifestyle, with emphasis on relaxation and physical fitness. Dress-down Friday's made casual attire appropriate for even the board room.

    3. Change of status in women - women are now major breadwinners in the Family, earning their own money and increased spending on discretionary purchases. Career Dress for women is found to be a lucrative market.

    Businesses are very concerned with the amount of discretionary income people have. the industry envourages people to spend their "extra" money on appearl. those in the fashion industry are best served when they address the social changes in society and market merchandise that best suits these changes.
  14. Fashion & Consumer Research - methodology for making importatn decisions concerning business, engage in formal research.
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