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2012-01-16 09:58:32
anatomy physiology

basics in physiology
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  1. what is Physiology?
    The study of the body functionInvolves experimentation
  2. what is Anatomy?
    The study of the structure of the human bodyInvolves observation and dissection
  3. Are the two related?
    • Anatomy and physiology are closely interrelated
    • Function related to structure
  4. Describe Gross Anatomy
    Study of the body parts with only naked eye
  5. Microscopic Anatomy
    • Study of parts with a microscope
    • Cytology- study of cells
    • Histology- study of tissues
  6. Regional Anatomy
    Structures of specific regions of the body
  7. what else is there?
    Systemic Anatomy
  8. Basic Life Processes
    • Metabolism - All the chemical processes that occur in body
    • Responsiveness - Reaction to internal or external change
    • Movement - Gross (whole body) or internal (cells or organelles inside cells)
    • Growth - Increase in size, but not in the shape
    • Differentiation - Change in cell from an unspecialized to a specialized cell
    • Reproduction - New organism
    • - Formation of new cells for tissue growth, repair and replacement
  9. Levels of Structural Organization
    • Chemical Level- Atoms and molecules
    • Cellular Level- Cell is the smallest living unit A component bounded by membrane or cell wall
    • Tissue Levels- Group of cells that perform specific function (Chapter 4)
    • Four major tissue types: muscular, nervous, epithelial and connective
    • Organ Level-Two or more tissues that form a particular shape (e.g.. heart, kidney etc…) and perform a specific function
    • Organs with the same general function combine to form organ systems (e.g. respiratory system, cardiovascular system)
    • Organismal Level-Homo sapiens
  10. Organ Systems of the Human Body?
    • Organ Systems of the human body include the following:
    • Integumentary
    • Skeletal
    • Muscular
    • Nervous
    • Endocrine
    • Cardiovascular
    • Lymphatic
    • Respiratory
    • Urinary
    • DigestiveReproductive
  11. Integumentary System
    • Includes skin, hair , nails, sweat glands and oil glands
    • Functions: Covers the body
    • Protection
    • Senses changes outside the body
    • Synthesize vitamin D
    • Help regulate body temperature
  12. Skeletal System
    • Includes bones, cartilage and joints
    • Functions: Structure and support
    • Protection of internal organs
    • Movement- site for muscle attachment
    • Mineral storage (calcium and phosphorus)
    • Site of blood cell formation
  13. Muscular System
    • Composed of skeletal muscles and tendons Functions:Movement
    • Posture
    • Heat production
  14. Nervous System
    • Composed from brain, spinal cord and nerves
    • Function: Respond to internal and external stimuli
    • Activates muscles and glands
  15. Endocrine System
    • Composed of hormone producing glands (pituitary gland, adrenals, pancreas, thyroid, parathyroid), or hormone producing cells
    • Functions: Control and regulation of other systems
  16. Cardiovascular System
    • Composed of the heart, blood and blood vessels
    • Functions: Transport of oxygen, nutrients and wastes
  17. Lymphatic System
    • Composed of bone marrow, lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, tonsils, spleen and thymus.
    • Functions: Maintains body fluid- collects and return interstitial fluid back to the blood
    • Defend the body against disease by producing immune cells
  18. Respiratory System
    • Includes respiratory airways leading into and out of the lungs, including the lungs themselves.
    • Function: Exchange of gases between the lung and blood
  19. Digestive System
    • Composed of oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, anus, liver and accessory organs.
    • Functions: receives, breaks down and absorbs the nutrients, and eliminates wastes
  20. Urinary System
    • Kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra
    • Functions: Excrete wastes
    • Maintain water and electrolyte balance
  21. Reproductive System
    • Male reproductive system
    • Composed of testes, vas deferens, prostate glands, seminal vesicles, penis
    • Main function: Production of offspring

    • Female reproductive system
    • Composed of ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, breast
    • Main Function: Production of offspring
  22. Homeostasis
    • The function of homeostasis is to maintain internal environment within a narrow ranges of temperature and chemistry and therefore allow the organism to function properly and to survive.
    • Homeostasis is a dynamic condition that uses feedback systems that respond to changes in the external and internal environments. Components of a feedback system:
    • Receptor
    • Control center
    • An effector
  23. Control of Homeostasis - Negative Feedback System
    • Most common form of feedback system
    • Operate to reduce or eliminate the changes detected by stimulus receptor
    • Are responsible for maintaining homeostasis
    • Example: Thermoregulation, blood glucose levels, blood CO2 levels.
  24. Positive Feedback System
    • Reinforces the change that is occurring
    • Tends to produce destabilizing effects and disrupt homeostasis
    • Bring specific body functions to completion
    • Example: Control of labor contractions during birth of a baby
  25. Body Fluids
    • Body fluids are composed of water, oxygen, nutrients, proteins and ions
    • Intracellular fluid -Within cells
    • Extracellular fluid- Outside of body cells
    • Blood plasma
    • Lymph
    • CSF
    • Synovial fluid
    • Interstitial fluid
  26. Directional Terminology
    • Refers to the body in anatomical position
    • Commonly used directional terms:

    • Anterior (or ventral) - At the front of the body
    • Dorsal (or posterior) - At the back of the body
    • Medial - Nearer to the midline of the body
    • Lateral - Farther from the midline of the body
    • Proximal - Nearer to the attachment of the limb to the trunk
    • Distal - Farther from the attachment of the limb to the trunk

    • Body Planes - Planes that are used to divide body or organs into definite areas
    • Coronal/Frontal Plane - Divides body into anterior and posterior part
    • Saggital PlaneVertical plane - Divides the body in right and left section
    • If section divides the body into two equal parts

    • Transverse Plane
    • Horizontal plane
    • Divides body into superior and inferior parts
  27. Body Cavities
    • Body cavities that are the spaces within the human body that help to protect, separate and support internal organs
    • Dorsal (Posterior) Body Cavity
    • Cranial Cavity -Contains brain
    • Vertebral (Spinal) Cavity - Contains the spinal cord
  28. Ventral (Anterior) Body Cavity
    Thoracic Cavity

    • Pleural Cavity - Contains the left and right lung
    • Pericardial Cavity - Contains the heart
    • Mediastinum - Central portion of thoracic cavity
    • Contains the heart, thymus, esophagus, trachea,

    Ventral (Anterior) Body Cavity

    • Abdominal Cavity - Contains stomach, liver, gallblader, small intestine and part of large intestine, and kidneys
    • Pelvic Cavity or “True Pelvis” - Contains the urinary bladder, portion of large intestine rectum and internal female/male reproductive systems
  29. Medical Imaging Techniques
    • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)MRI
    • uses magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce images of organs, soft tissue and bone. Distinguish body tissue based on relative water content
    • Allows to distinguish between normal from abnormal tissue (e.g. blood clothes, tumors)
  30. Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT)
    • Uses x-ray equipment to produces multiple images of the body
    • Computer joins the images together and produces a cross-sectional view of area of interest
    • CAT scans allow for visualization of internal organs such as bone, soft tissue and blood vessels
    • Useful in a diagnosis of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, trauma etc…
  31. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
    • Involves the injection of tracer liquid (radioactive chemical), which accumulates in the specific organs and tissues
    • Tracer gives off tiny positively charged particles that are recorded by camera and form an image.
    • Not as detailed as CAT scan or MRI
    • Used in clinical oncology for the detection of rapidly growing malignant tumors
    • Used in neurology, to detect pathological changes in the brain (e.g. Parkinson's or Alzheimer disease)
  32. Ultrasound Imaging
    • Body is probed with a high frequency sound waves that echo off the body tissues
    • Safe and non-invasive
    • Used for the visualization of the fetus during pregnancy