Immunology Chapter 1

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tlclaybrooks
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128190
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Immunology Chapter 1
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2012-02-05 14:21:36
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Ericson Immunology
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  1. Define adaptive immunity.
    Long-term immunity conferred by an adaptation to a specific pathogenic infection.
  2. Define innate immunity.
    Short-term immune response to a wide array of pathogens.
  3. Define immune effector functions.
    The functions of the immune system that restrict an infection and eliminate it, such as complement, Mfs, neutrophils, Abs, and effector T cells.
  4. Define immunological memory
    The immune system's ability to fight a specific pathogenic infection better the second time than the first.
  5. What is the origin and maturation of plasma cells?
    • 1. Pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell
    • 2. Common lymphoid progenitor
    • 3. B cell
    • 4. Plasma cell
  6. What is the origin and maturation of effector T cells?
    • 1. Pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell
    • 2. Common lymphoid progenitor
    • 3. T cell
    • 4. Effector T cell
  7. What is the origin and maturation of NK cells?
    • 1. Pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell
    • 2. Common lymphoid progenitor
    • 3. NK cell
    • 4. Effector NK cell
  8. What is the orgin and maturation of DCs?
    • 1. Pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell
    • 2. Common lymphoid/myeloid progenitor
    • 3. Immature DC
    • 4. Mature DC
  9. What is the origin and maturation of granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils)?
    • 1. Pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells
    • 2. Common myeloid progenitor
    • 3. Granulocyte progenitor
    • 4. Granulocytes
  10. What is the origin and maturation of mast cells?
    • 1. Pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells
    • 2. Common myeloid progenitor
    • 3. Macrophage progenitor
    • 4. Mast cell precursor
    • 5. Mast cell
  11. What is the origin and maturation of macrophages?
    • 1. Pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells
    • 2. Common myeloid progenitor
    • 3. Macrophage progenitor
    • 4. Monocyte
    • 5. Macrophage
  12. What is the origin and maturation of platelets?
    • 1. Pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells
    • 2. Common myeloid progenitor
    • 3. Megakaryocyte progenitor
    • 4. Megakaryocyte
    • 5. Platelets
  13. What is the orgin and maturation of erythrocytes?
    • 1. Pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells
    • 2. Common myeloid progenitor
    • 3. Erythrocyte progenitor
    • 4. Erythroblast
    • 5. Erythrocyte
  14. What is the activated function of macrophages?
    • 1. Phagocytosis
    • 2. Activation of bactericidal mechanisms
    • 3. Ag presentation
  15. What is the activated function of DCs?
    • 1. Ag uptake in peripheral lymph system
    • 2. Ag presentation
  16. What is the activated function of neutrophils?
    • 1. Phagocytosis
    • 2. Activation of bactericidal mechanisms
  17. What is the activated function of eosinophils?
    Killing of Ab coated parasites
  18. What is the activated function of basophils?
    • 1. Promotion of allergic response
    • 2. Augmentation of anti-parasitic immunity
  19. What is the activated function of mast cells?
    Release of granules containing histamine and active agents
  20. What is the activated function of NK cells?
    To kill virus infected cells
  21. What is the active function of B cells?
    • 1. Proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells
    • 2. Secrete B-cell receptor aka Abs
  22. What is the active function of T cells?
    • 1. Cytotoxic T cells - kill virus and other intracellular infected cells
    • 2. Helper T cells - Signal other components of the immune system to activate
    • 3. Regulartory T cells - Regulate immune response
  23. Which of the major immune system cell types are involved in the innate response vs. the adaptive response?
    • 1. Innate - Macrophages, DCs, Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils
    • 2. Adaptive - T cells, B cells, NK cells, DCs
  24. Discuss the primary lymphoid organs.
    • 1. Location of lymphocyte generation and maturation
    • 2. Bone marrow makes B cells
    • 3. Thymus gland makes T cells
  25. Discuss secondary lymphoid tissue.
    • 1. Where mature naive lymphocytes are maintained and adaptive immune response is innitiated.
    • 2. Organs include spleen, lymph nodes, and mucosal lymphoid tissue
  26. Define cytokine.
    Secreted proteins that affect the behavior of nearby cells
  27. Define chemokines.
    Secreted proteins that act as chemoattractants for other immune cells (e.g. neutrophils and monocytes)
  28. Define complement.
    Plasma proteins that coat pathogens thus targeting them for phagocytosis by Mfs
  29. Define inflammation.
    Local heat, pain, redness, and swelling due to the effect of complement, cytokines, and chemokines
  30. What are the basic events that occur during inflammatory response?
    • 1. Bacteria trigger macrophages to release cytokines and chemokines
    • 2. Vasodilation and increased vascular permeability cause redness, heat, and swelling
    • 3. Inflammatory cells migrate into tissue, releasing inflammatory mediators that cause pain
  31. What are PRR's?
    • 1. Pathogen-Recognition Receptors
    • 2. Located on Mfs, neutrophils, and dendrites that help them recognize pathogens (PAMPs)
  32. What are PAMPs?
    • 1. Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns
    • 2. Present on microorganisms that allow innate immune cells to recognize them using PRRs
  33. What are the important aspects of the clonal selection theory?
    • 1. A single progenitor cell gives rise to a large number of lymphocytes, each with a different specificity
    • 2. Removal of potentially self-reactive immature lymphocytes by clonal deletion
    • 3. Remaining pool of mature naive lymphocytes, each with a single type of receptor with a unique specificity for Ag
    • 4. Proliferation and differentiation of activated lymphocytes to form a clones (clonal expansion) of effector cells with identical receptors specific for the Ag that activated it
  34. What is the structure of B cell Abs?
    • 1. 2 identical H chains and 2 identical L chains
    • 2. Each H and L chain has a C and V region
    • 3. The V regions of the H and L chains form the Ag binding site
    • 4. The stem is formed from the C region of the H chains
  35. What is the structure of T-cell receptors?
    • 1. Alpha and Beta chains - similar in size
    • 2. Each has C and V region
    • 3. V regions form Ag binding site
    • 4. The stem is formed from the C region of the chains
  36. Define epitope.
    The small part of an antigenic molecule that is recognized by antigen receptor on Abs
  37. Define apoptosis.
    Programmed cell death
  38. What are the basic structural components of a lymph node?
    • 1. Afferent lymphatic vessels - drain lymph into the node
    • 2. Primary lymphoid follicle - mostly B cells
    • 3. Germinal centers - areas in secondary lymphoid follicle with intense B cell proliferation
    • 4. Paracortical area - mostly T cells
    • 5. Medulla - medullary cords consisting of macrophages and plasma cells
    • 5. Efferent lymphatic vessels - drains lymph away from node
  39. What are the basic structural components of Peyer's patches?
    • 1. M cell - entry point of Ag from gut into patch
    • 2. Subepithelial dome - area just beneath intestinal epithelium rich in DCs, B cells, and T cells
    • 3. Follicle - contains germinal center for B cell proliferation
    • 4. T cell dependant area - area between follicles rich in T cells
    • 5. Efferent lymphatics - drain lymph away from patch
  40. What are the basics of vaccination?
    • Primary response:
    • 1. Ag exposure
    • 2. Lag Phase - low [Ab]
    • 3. [Ab] rises then declines
    • Secondary response (booster)
    • 1. Ag re-exposure
    • 2. Rapid and intense increase in [Ab]
  41. What are the 4 major categories of pathogens?
    • 1. Extracellular bacteria, parasites, fungi (pneumonia)
    • 2. Intracellular bacteria, parasites (leprosy)
    • 3. Intracellular Viruses (flu)
    • 4. Extracellular parasitic worms (ascariasis)
  42. What are the 3 major effector functions of Ab?
    • 1. Neutralization - Ab neutralizes pathogen by preventing it from binding to cells
    • 2. Opsinization - Ab coats pathogen thus targeting it for phagocytosis
    • 3. Complement activation - Ab coat pathogen which activates complement components which coat pathogen and target it for phagocytosis
  43. What is the function of an MHC I molecule?
    • 1. Virus infects cell
    • 2. Viral proteins synthesized in cytosol
    • 3. Peptide fragments of viral proteins are bound by MHC I molecules
    • 4. Bound peptides are transported to the cell surface
    • 5. Cytotoxic CD8 T cells recognize complex of viral peptide and MHC I and kills infected cell
  44. What is the function of an MHC II molecule?
    • 1. Expressed by APC's (DCs, macrophages, B cells)
    • 2. Bind peptides
    • 3. Translocate them to cell surface
    • 4. Recognized by helper T cells which activate the APC
  45. What are the 3 phases of immune response?
    • 1. Innate
    • 2. Adaptive
    • 3. Immunological Memory
  46. What characterizes the innate immune response?
    Inflammation, complement activation, phagocytosis and destruction of pathogen (minutes, days)
  47. What characterizes the adaptive immune response?
    • 1. Interaction between Ag-presenting DCs and Ag-specific T cells: recognition of Ag, adhesion, co-stimulation, T cell proliferation and differentiation (hrs, days)
    • 2. Activation of Ag-specific B cells (hrs, days)
    • 3. Formation of effector and memory T cells (days, wks)
    • 4. Interation of T cells w/B cells, formation of germinal centers; formation of plasma cells and memory B cells; production of Ab (days, wks)
    • 5. Emigration of effector lymphocytes form peripheral lymphoid organs (days, wks)
    • 6. Effector cells and Abs eliminate pathogen (days, wks)
  48. What characterizes immunological memory?
    Maintenance of memory B cells and T cells and high serum Ab levels; protection against reinfection (wks, lifelong)

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