Oceanography Test 1
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What percent of the Earth is covered with Ocean?
What percent of the Earth's water is in oceans?
Why Study Oceans?
- - Earth is a "water planet."
- - Get resources from it.
- - use it for commerce and nat'l security.
- - Affects climate, weather, & coastal communities.
Name the Earth's 4 oceans.
- - Atlantic
- - Pacific
- - Indian
- - Artic
- (some identify a 5th ocean.... Southern Ocean around Antartica)
Mediterranean, Baltic Sea, Sea of Japan, Bering
What percent of the Earth's surface is covered by ocean?
What is the average ocean depth?
What is the average ocean temp?
What is the deepest spot i the ocean?
Challenger Deep in the Marianas Trench
How deep is the deepest part of the ocean?
Which hempispere has the least ocean?
What are the main fields of study for marine science/ oceanography?
Physical, biological, geological, and chemical
What does physical oceanography study?
Waves, currents, and acoustics.
What does biological oceanography study?
The nature and distribution of marine organisms.
What does geological oceanography study?
The Earth’s crust and composition.
What does chemical oceanography study?
The ocean’s dissolved gases and solids.
Science is a systematic process of...
asking questions about the observable world by gathering and studying information (data)
Science interprets raw information by...
constructing a general explanation with which the information is compatible.
What are the 6 steps of Scientific Method?
- 1. Make observations and measurements
- 2. Develop a hypothesis
- 3. Test the hypothesis through experiments
- 4. Revise, discard, or accept the hypothesis based on the testing results
- 5. Develop a theory from a successful hypothesis
- 6. Retest the hypothesis and theory
What ios the Earth's best frame of reference and why?
The poles because they mark the surface of Earth’s axis of rotation.
What is the imaginary line called that seperates the Northen and Southern hemisperes?
Imaginary lines that run parrallel to the equator are called
Lines of latitude
Do lines of lattitude get smaller or larger as they get closer to the poles?
How many degrees of latitude are between the equator and either pole?
What latitude is the equator?
What is your latitude at the North Pole?
What is your latitude at the South Pole?
Longitude lines are also called
Where is the arbitrary starting point for longitude as designated in 1884?
What is the starting point for longitude called?
What degree is the Prime Meridian?
At what intervals are the meridians seperated?
What is the maximum longitude?
What is the maximum longitude called?
When you cross the International Dateline from the western hemisphere to the eastern hemisphere you...
lose a day.
Longitude lines in the Western hemisphere have what after them?
When describing a location, what is given first?
What are the 4 geographic regions?
Tropics, subtropics, temperate, and polar zones
Where are the tropis located?
Between the Tropic of Cancer in northern hemisphere
Where are the subtropics located?
Region adjacent to the tropics.
Where is the temperate zone located?
The northern and southern hemisphere portions of the Earth that lie between the tropics and the polar circles.
Where are the polar regions located?
- - Regions north of Arctic circle (~66.5N) and south of Antarctic circle (~66.5S)
- - South pole is center of southern polar region
- - North pole is center of northern polar region
Converting kilometers to miles
1 km = .62 miles
- - 1 km is very roughly .5 or ½mile
- - Divide your km value by 2 to roughly get how many miles
- - Ex: 10 km is roughly equal to 10/2 or 5 miles
How to convert temperatures
- Celcius to Fahrenheit
- F = (C * 1.8) + 32
- Ex: What is 4C in degrees Fahrenheit?
- F = (4 * 1.8) + 32 = 7.2 + 32 = 39.2
The origin of Earth’s ocean is linked to
The origin of Earth.
The origin of Earth is linked to
that of the solar system and galaxies
The origin of solar system and galaxies
is linked to the origin of the universe.
How long ago did the "Big Bang Theory" occur?
Explain the Big Bang Theory...
All of the mass and energy of the universe was concentrated at a geometric point at the beginning of space and time, the moment when the expansion of the universe began.
What started the Big Bang and when will it stop?
We don’t know what initiated the expansion, but it continues today and will probably continue for billions of years, perhaps forever.
What is the universe made of?
billions of galaxies, huge rotating aggregations of stars, dust, gas, and debris held together by gravity.
How long ago did first galaxies develop?
What galaxy are we in?
How long ago did our solar system develop?
What do stars have to do with the ocean?
- - Most of the substance of Earth, its ocean, and all living things, was formed by stars.
- - Every chemical element heavier than hydrogen was manufactured and released into space by stars.
- - Our sun, like all normal stars, is powered by nuclear fusion.
Earth’s Early Formation based on solar nebula hypothesis...
Earth started forming from the collision and aggregation (accretion) of metallic and rocky matter in a dust cloud rotating around our young sun.
Young Earth was...
The processes involved in forming Earth caused the materials to...
The minerals that made up the molten rocks arranged themselves vertically in the Earth by density through process of...
The heaviest minerals, iron and nickel , sank to the center and formed the...
Core of the Earth.
The lighter minerals, like the silicates (composed of silica and oxygen), rose to the surface and formed the...
The finished product, our Earth, happened about...
Gases were released at the surface from
magma (molten rock)
Earth was forming and becoming density stratified in a process called
Outgassing created our
Characteristics the primitive atmosphere...
- - High in carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water vapor
- - Had traces of ammonia and methane
- - NO Oxygen
Over time, the atmosphere cooled enough for the water vapor to condense and
precipitation to fall.
What besides percipitations helped form our Earth's oceans?
Icy commets hitting Earth.
How long ago did the first oceans form?
Oceans are still being added to by...
How long ago did evolution of the primitive atmosphere to our current atmosphere began?
Our current atmpostphere is mostly...
nitrogen and oxygen.
Carbon dioxide dissolved in the seawater making less...
carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
Water vapor was chemically broken down by sunlight making...
less water vapor.
How long ago did the oxygen revolution begin?
2 bya–400 mya.
During the oxygen revolution, primitive plants (probably cyanobacteria) started producing...
oxygen through photosynthesis.
oxygen to start accumulating in the atmosphere.
What percent is our atmosphere nitrogen?
What percent of our atmostpehere is oxygen?
1 percent of our atmosphere is...
Low in carbon dioxide and water vapor (and other gases.)
Current ocean and atmosphere reached a steady state and became similar to what we have today about...
How far through its life span is our meduim sized sun?
5 billion years in the future our sun will start to...
become a red giant and in that process incinerate the innermost planets, including Earth.
Our understanding of Earth’s layering and composition has evolved over time. Based on evidence collected from:
- - Seismic waves from earthquakes
- - Drilling
- - Volcanic Gasses
- - Variations in gravitational field
Studies of seismic waves indicated what?
The Earth has a a solid inner core and a liquid outer core.
What are the two methods of Classifying Earth’s Inner Layers?
Composition and Physical Properties
Classifing the Earth's Inner Layers by composition consists of:
What kind of rocks (minerals) layer is made of.
Classifying the Earth's inner layers by it's physical properties consists of:
How the rocks react to applied physical forces.
What are the 3 layers of the Earth from surface to core?
Cust, Mantle, and Core
What are the two kinds of crust?
Oceanic and Continental
What is the core of the Earth made of?
Iron and nickel
What is the mantle made of?
What is the oceanic crust made of?
What is the continental crust made of?
What are the Earth’s 5 Internal Structure -Physical Layers?
- - Lithosphere
- - Asthenosphere
- - Mesosphere (lower mantle)
- - Outer core
- - Inner core
Characteristics of the lithospere:
Cool, rigid, strong; broken up into plates; includes crust and upper mantle rocks.
Characteristics of the Asthenosphere:
Hot, partially melted and deformable (flowing); drives plate tectonics.
Characteristics of the Earth's Mesosphere.
Middle sphere; less deformable but still capable of gradual flow.
Characteristics of the Earth's outer core:
Fluid; hot (avg5500C); made of iron-nickel alloy; generates Earth’s magnetic field.
Characteristics of the Earth's inner core:
Solid due to greater pressure; hot; made of iron-nickel alloy.
Most widely accepted theory that describes the topography and processes we see happening on surface of Earth.
Plate Tectonics Theory
This theory has evolved over time it combined earlier concepts of...
continental drift and seafloor spreading
The Continental Drift Hypothesis proposed by _____ in what year?
Alfred Wegener in 1912
All land was in a supercontinent called "Pangaea," how long ago?
Evidence of Continental Drift is based on...
- - Continental fit of S. America and Africa
- - Fossils
- - Rock types
- - Ancient Climates
Seafloor Spreading Hypothesis Proposed in _______ by ________
1960 by Harry Hess and Robert Dietz.
New seafloor develops along ocean ridges and...
spreads outward from them.
Seafloor spreading was powered by convection currents within the
Theory of Plate Tectonics Proposed by ______ in ______.
John TuzoWilson in 1965
Most widely accepted theory that describes the topography and processes we see happening on surface of Earth
Plate Tectonics theory
Motion in the lithosphere is caused by...
unequal distribution of heat within the Earth which causes convection currents to occur in the asthenosphere below.
The Earth is composed of how many major plates?
Average rate of plate movement is
All major interactions among individual plates occur along
What are the 3 types of plate boundaries?
- - Divergent
- - Convergent
- - Transform fault
Describe divergent plate boundaries.
(spreading apart) -Constructive
Describe convergent plate boundaries.
(coming together) -Destructive
Describe transform fault plate boundaries.
(sliding by one another) -Conservative
What are the types of continental margin?
Active and passive
Characteristics of active continental margins.
- - tectonically active–i.e. earthquakes, volcanoes
- - Continental margins near or at edges of converging lithospheric plates
- - Have narrow continental shelves
- - Common in the Pacific Ocean
Characteristics of passive contenintal margins
- - tectonicallypassive–i.e. no earthquakes, volcanoes
- - Continental margins that are NOT at edge of lithospheric plate
- - Continental margins facing diverging plates
- - Broad continental shelves
- - Common in the Atlantic Ocean
Hot spots are caused by...
relatively stationary mantle plumes rising to the surface.
Mantle plumes are superheated mantle that comes from the
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