Organic Chemistry

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Organic Chemistry
2012-01-16 17:04:12
organic chemistry

Bio Midterm
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  1. polar bonds
    a polar bond is a type of covalent bond between two atoms or more in which electrons are shared unequally.
  2. nonpolar bonds
    Nonpolar covalent bonds, with equal sharing of the bond electrons, arise when the electronegativities of the two atoms are equal.
  3. Hydrogen bond
    the attractive interaction of ahydrogen atom with anelectronegative atom
  4. pH
    is a measure of soil acidity or soil alkalinity
  5. isomers
    compounds with the same molecular formulabut different structural formulas.
  6. polymer
    composed of repeatingstructural units.
  7. dehydration synthesis
    involves the loss of water from the reacting molecule
  8. hydrolysis
    It is the type of reaction that is used to break down certain polymers
  9. Carbohydrate
    an organic compound that consists only ofcarbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, with a hydrogen:oxygenatom ratio of 2:1 (as in water).
  10. monosaccharides
    simplest form of a carbohydrate
  11. polysaccaride
    longcarbohydrate molecules, of repeated monomer units joined together by glycosidic bonds.
  12. Glycosidic Linkage
    type of covalent bond that joins acarbohydrate (sugar) molecule to another group, which may or may not be another carbohydrate.
  13. starch
    acarbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined together by glycosidic bonds.
  14. Glycogen
    amolecule that serves as the secondary long-term energy storage inanimal and fungal cells
  15. lipids
    constitute a broad group of naturally occurring molecules that includefats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K),monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, phospholipids, and others.
  16. fatty acid
    acarboxylic acid with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated orunsaturated.
  17. Saturated Fats
    is fat that consists of triglyceridescontaining only saturated fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids have no double bonds between the individualcarbon atoms of the fatty acid chain.
  18. Unsaturated Fat
    a fat or fatty acid in which there is at least one double bond within the fatty acid chain.
  19. Phospholipid
    a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes as they can form lipid bilayers.
  20. Proteins
    are biochemicalcompounds consisting of one or more polypeptides
  21. amino acids
    are molecules containing an amine group, a carboxylic acid group, and a side-chain that is specific to each amino acid.
  22. Peptides
    are short polymers ofamino acid monomerslinked by peptide bonds.
  23. peptide bond
    acovalent chemical bond formed between two molecules when thecarboxyl group of one molecule reacts with the amino group of the other molecule, causing the release of a molecule of water
  24. Primary Structure
    is the exact specification of its atomic composition and the chemical bonds connecting those atoms
  25. Secondary Structure
    is the general three-dimensional form of local segments ofbiopolymers such as proteinsand nucleic acids
  26. Tertiary Structure
    any other macromolecule is its three-dimensional structure, as defined by the atomic coordinates
  27. Quaternary Structure
    is the arrangement of multiple foldedprotein or coiling protein molecules in a multi-subunit complex