a polar bond is a type of covalent bond between two atoms or more in which electrons are shared unequally.
Nonpolar covalent bonds, with equal sharing of the bond electrons, arise when the electronegativities of the two atoms are equal.
the attractive interaction of ahydrogen atom with anelectronegative atom
is a measure of soil acidity or soil alkalinity
compounds with the same molecular formulabut different structural formulas.
composed of repeatingstructural units.
involves the loss of water from the reacting molecule
It is the type of reaction that is used to break down certain polymers
an organic compound that consists only ofcarbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, with a hydrogen:oxygenatom ratio of 2:1 (as in water).
simplest form of a carbohydrate
longcarbohydrate molecules, of repeated monomer units joined together by glycosidic bonds.
type of covalent bond that joins acarbohydrate (sugar) molecule to another group, which may or may not be another carbohydrate.
acarbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined together by glycosidic bonds.
amolecule that serves as the secondary long-term energy storage inanimal and fungal cells
constitute a broad group of naturally occurring molecules that includefats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K),monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, phospholipids, and others.
acarboxylic acid with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated orunsaturated.
is fat that consists of triglyceridescontaining only saturated fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids have no double bonds between the individualcarbon atoms of the fatty acid chain.
a fat or fatty acid in which there is at least one double bond within the fatty acid chain.
a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes as they can form lipid bilayers.
are biochemicalcompounds consisting of one or more polypeptides
are molecules containing an amine group, a carboxylic acid group, and a side-chain that is specific to each amino acid.
are short polymers ofamino acid monomerslinked by peptide bonds.
acovalent chemical bond formed between two molecules when thecarboxyl group of one molecule reacts with the amino group of the other molecule, causing the release of a molecule of water
is the exact specification of its atomic composition and the chemical bonds connecting those atoms
is the general three-dimensional form of local segments ofbiopolymers such as proteinsand nucleic acids
any other macromolecule is its three-dimensional structure, as defined by the atomic coordinates
is the arrangement of multiple foldedprotein or coiling protein molecules in a multi-subunit complex