Cells

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Author:
abesecker12
ID:
128232
Filename:
Cells
Updated:
2012-01-16 17:48:27
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cells
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Bio Midterm
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  1. prokaryotic cells
    are a group of organisms that lack a cell nucleus (= karyon), or any othermembrane-boundorganelles
  2. eukaryotic cells
    organism with a nucleus
  3. plasma membrane
    membrane that separates the inside of the cell from the environment. lipid bilayer with embedded proteins and is selectively permeable
  4. mitochondria
    a membrane-enclosed organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. generate most of the cell's supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP),
  5. chloroplast
    areorganelles found inplant cells and othereukaryotic organisms that conductphotosynthesis
  6. lysosome
    are cellularorganelles that contain acidhydrolaseenzymes to break down waste materials and cellular debris
  7. endoplasmic reticulum
    • is anorganelle of cells ineukaryotic organisms that forms an interconnected network of tubules,vesicles, andcisternae.
    • Rough endoplasmic reticula synthesize proteins
    • smooth endoplasmic reticula synthesize lipids, steroids and morphine, metabolize carbohydrates and steroids (but not lipids), and regulate calcium concentration, drug metabolism, and attachment of receptors on cell membrane proteins
  8. Golgi Apparatus
    It processes and packages proteins inside of the cell and before they make their way to their destination; it is particularly important in the processing of proteins forsecretion
  9. Ribosome
    is a component of cells that synthesizes protein chains. It assembles the twenty specific amino acidmolecules to form the particularproteinmolecule determined by the nucleotidesequence of an RNA molecule
  10. nucleus
    is a membrane-enclosedorganellefound ineukaryoticcells. It contains most of the cell'sgenetic material
  11. vacuoles
    are essentially enclosed compartments which are filled with water containing inorganic and organic molecules including enzymes insolution
  12. cytoskeleton
    is a cellular "scaffolding" or "skeleton" contained within a cell'scytoplasm and is made out of protein.
  13. cell wall
    is the tough, usually flexible but sometimes fairly rigid layer that surrounds some types of cells.
  14. plasmodesmata
    microscopic channels which traverse the cell walls of plant cells[2][3]and some algal cells, enabling transport and communication between them.
  15. gap junctions
    is a specialized intercellular connection between a multitude of animal cell-types.[1][2][3] It directly connects the cytoplasmof two cells, which allows variousmolecules and ions to pass freely between cells.
  16. extracellular matrix
    usually provides structural support to the animalcells in addition to performing various other important functions. The extracellular matrix is the defining feature ofconnective tissue in animals.
  17. excision repair
    They remove the damaged nucleotides and are able to determine the correct sequence from the complementary strand of DNA.
  18. facilitated diffusion
    is the spontaneous passage of molecules or ions across a biological membrane passing through specific transmembrane integral proteins
  19. hypotonic
    is a solution which has a lower osmotic pressure than any other solution.
  20. hypertonic
    is a solution having a greater effective osmole concentration than the cytosol
  21. turgid
    pushes the plasma membrane against the cell wall of plant, bacteria, and fungi cells as well as those protist cells which have cell walls
  22. flaccid
    drooping or inelastic through lack of water
  23. plasmolysis
    is the process in plant cells where the cytoplasm pulls away from the cell wall due to the loss of water throughosmosis
  24. active transport
    is the movement of a substance against its concentration gradient (from low to high concentration).
  25. ATP
    is a multifunctionalnucleoside triphosphate used incells as a coenzyme.
  26. Exocytosis
    is the durable process by which a cell directs the contents of secretoryvesicles out of the cell membrane.
  27. Endocytosis
    is a process by which cellsabsorbmolecules(such as proteins) by engulfing them.
  28. Phagocytosis
    is thecellular process of engulfing solid particles by the cell membrane to form an internalphagosome by phagocytes andprotists

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