are a group of organisms that lack a cell nucleus (= karyon), or any othermembrane-boundorganelles
organism with a nucleus
membrane that separates the inside of the cell from the environment. lipid bilayer with embedded proteins and is selectively permeable
a membrane-enclosed organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. generate most of the cell's supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP),
areorganelles found inplant cells and othereukaryotic organisms that conductphotosynthesis
are cellularorganelles that contain acidhydrolaseenzymes to break down waste materials and cellular debris
is anorganelle of cells ineukaryotic organisms that forms an interconnected network of tubules,vesicles, andcisternae.
Rough endoplasmic reticula synthesize proteins
smooth endoplasmic reticula synthesize lipids, steroids and morphine, metabolize carbohydrates and steroids (but not lipids), and regulate calcium concentration, drug metabolism, and attachment of receptors on cell membrane proteins
It processes and packages proteins inside of the cell and before they make their way to their destination; it is particularly important in the processing of proteins forsecretion
is a component of cells that synthesizes protein chains. It assembles the twenty specific amino acidmolecules to form the particularproteinmolecule determined by the nucleotidesequence of an RNA molecule
is a membrane-enclosedorganellefound ineukaryoticcells. It contains most of the cell'sgenetic material
are essentially enclosed compartments which are filled with water containing inorganic and organic molecules including enzymes insolution
is a cellular "scaffolding" or "skeleton" contained within a cell'scytoplasm and is made out of protein.
is the tough, usually flexible but sometimes fairly rigid layer that surrounds some types of cells.
microscopic channels which traverse the cell walls of plant cellsand some algal cells, enabling transport and communication between them.
is a specialized intercellular connection between a multitude of animal cell-types. It directly connects the cytoplasmof two cells, which allows variousmolecules and ions to pass freely between cells.
usually provides structural support to the animalcells in addition to performing various other important functions. The extracellular matrix is the defining feature ofconnective tissue in animals.
They remove the damaged nucleotides and are able to determine the correct sequence from the complementary strand of DNA.
is the spontaneous passage of molecules or ions across a biological membrane passing through specific transmembrane integral proteins
is a solution which has a lower osmotic pressure than any other solution.
is a solution having a greater effective osmole concentration than the cytosol
pushes the plasma membrane against the cell wall of plant, bacteria, and fungi cells as well as those protist cells which have cell walls
drooping or inelastic through lack of water
is the process in plant cells where the cytoplasm pulls away from the cell wall due to the loss of water throughosmosis
is the movement of a substance against its concentration gradient (from low to high concentration).
is a multifunctionalnucleoside triphosphate used incells as a coenzyme.
is the durable process by which a cell directs the contents of secretoryvesicles out of the cell membrane.
is a process by which cellsabsorbmolecules(such as proteins) by engulfing them.
is thecellular process of engulfing solid particles by the cell membrane to form an internalphagosome by phagocytes andprotists