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The science relating to moral actions and individual value systems. The systematic study of what a person's conduct and actions ought to be with regard to self, other human beings, and the environment
Concerns the social nature of the community, codes of behavior, and community expectations
Norms and rules from the duties human beings owe to one another by virtue of commitments made and roles assumed
Norms or rules for conduct from the conswquences of actions
An emerging theory in ethics that encorporates the various ethical principles in attempting to resolve conflicts in clinical settings
*Decisions about forgoing life-sustaining treatmentthat may conflict with religious beliefs
*Decisions not to pursue aggressive treatment while waiting to see what outcome God wants or trusting that conservatice treatment will work if God so intends
*Decisions to bow to a higher order, given by divine command, such as Jehova's Witnessess, who do not ingest blood, therefore, refuse blood tranfusions, even if life depends on it
Examples of Deontological Theories in Health Care Setting
*Rspect for Others
Eight Ethical Principles Nurses Encouter When Making Decisions in Clinical Settings
Personal Freedom, Right to Self-Determination
Actions to promote good
Person should do no harm
Telling the truth and the whole truth
Treating persons equally and fairly
Allows one to make decisions for another and often has been viewed as a negative or undesirable or principle
Keeping one's promises and commitments
Acknowledges the right of individuals to make decisions and to live by these decisions without prejudice
Respect for Others
1. Who should make the choices?
2. What are possible options or courses of action?
3. What are available and reasonable alternatives?
4. What are consequences (positive/negative) of all possible options?
5. Which rules, obligations, and values should direct the choices?
6. What are desired goals and outcomesin the given situations?
Questions in Ethical Decision Making
Two or more unfavorable alternatives to a given situation
Ex. Elderly gentleman wants independecy but family believes he should be in assisted living because of risk for injury.
M- massage the dilemma
O- outline the options
R- resolve the dilemma
A- act by applying the chosen option
L- Look back and evaluate
1. Provide structure and guidelines for potential problems
2. Serve as an open ended forum for discussion and debate
3. Function as a patient advocate by placing the patient at the core of the committee's deliberations
Uses substituted judment (what the person would have done if capable of making a decision) and facilitates decision making for the incompetent patient
Patient Benefit Model
Facilitates decision making for competent patient
Considers broad social issues that may arise within the institution; many ethics committees hold grand rounds
Social Justice Model
These are usually conducted on a monthly basis and allow staff members to begin to be more involved in ethical decision making by presenting cases that involves a variety of ethical issues
Ethical Grand Rounds
Assist health care providers with future ethical decision making by making them more knowledgeable about about ethical principles and the MORAL model
The purpose of ethical grand rounds