DNA

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Author:
abesecker12
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128264
Filename:
DNA
Updated:
2012-01-16 18:29:27
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Bio Midterm
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  1. DNA
    is a nucleic acid containing the geneticinstructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms
  2. Double helix
    refers to the structure formed by double-stranded molecules of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA.
  3. nucleotides
    are molecules that, when joined together, make up the structural units of RNA and DNA.
  4. nitrogenuous bases
    is a nitrogen-containing molecule having the chemical properties of a base.
  5. hydrogen bond
    is the attractive interaction of ahydrogen atom with anelectronegative atom
  6. origin of replication
    is a particular sequence in a genome at which replication is initiated
  7. helicase
    They aremotor proteins that move directionally along a nucleic acid phosphodiester backbone, separating two annealednucleic acid strands using energy derived from ATP hydrolysis.
  8. single-strand binding proteins
    binds to single stranded regions of DNA to prevent premature annealing
  9. leading strand
    is the strand of DNA being replicated continuously.All DNA synthesis occurs 5'-3'
  10. lagging strand
    It grows away from the replication fork and it is synthesized discontinuously. Because the strand is growing away from the replication fork, it needs to be replicated in fragments because the Primase
  11. Okazaki Fragments
    fragments of DNA produced on the lagging strand
  12. RNA primer
    is a strand of nucleic acid that serves as a starting point for DNA synthesis
  13. ligase
    is an enzyme that can catalyse the joining of two large molecules by forming a new chemical bond (the glue)
  14. 5' - 3' Direction
    the direction of DNA replication
  15. proofreading
    DNA polymerase checks the DNA for errors
  16. mismatch repair
    is a system for recognizing and repairing erroneous insertion, deletion and mis-incorporation of bases that can arise during DNA replication and recombination, as well as repairing some forms of DNA damage.
  17. telomeres
    is a region of repetitive DNAsequences at the end of a chromosome, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration
  18. telomerase
    adds DNAsequence repeats to the 3' end of DNA strands in the telomere regions
  19. Transcription
    the copying of DNA into messenger RNA in gene expression
  20. mRNA
    is a molecule of RNA that encodes a chemical "blueprint" for a protein product. mRNA is transcribedfrom a DNA template, and carries coding information to the sites of protein synthesis
  21. RNA Polymerase
    is an enzyme that produces RNA.
  22. poly(A)tail
    it is a stretch of RNA that has only adenine bases
  23. 5' cap
    is a specially altered nucleotide on the 5' end of precursor messenger RNA and some other primary RNA transcripts as found ineukaryotes
  24. introns
    is any nucleotide sequence within a gene that is removed by RNA splicing to generate the final mature RNA product of a gene.
  25. exons
    noncoding regions of RNA
  26. spliceosome
    is a complex of snRNA and protein subunits that removesintrons from a transcribed pre-mRNA (hnRNA) segment.
  27. tRNA
    is an adaptor molecule composed ofRNA, typically 73 to 93nucleotides in length, that is used in biology to bridge the four-letter genetic code (ATCG) in messenger RNA (mRNA) with the twenty-letter code of amino acids in proteins
  28. codons
    The code defines how sequences of three nucleotides specify which amino acid will be added next during protein synthesis
  29. anticodons
    is a unit made up of three nucleotides that correspond to the three bases of the codon on the mRNA.
  30. translocation
    is a chromosome abnormality caused by rearrangement of parts between nonhomologous chromosomes
  31. stop codons
    is a nucleotidetriplet within messenger RNA that signals a termination of translation
  32. point mutation
    is a type of mutation that causes the replacement of a single base nucleotide with another nucleotide of the genetic material,DNA or RNA
  33. substitution
    a functional group in a particular chemical compound is replaced by another group
  34. deletion
    is a mutation(a genetic aberration) in which a part of a chromosome or a sequence of DNA is missing
  35. i
  36. insertion
    is the addition of one or morenucleotide base pairsinto a DNA sequence.
  37. mutagens
    is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic material

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