is a nucleic acid containing the geneticinstructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms
refers to the structure formed by double-stranded molecules of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA.
are molecules that, when joined together, make up the structural units of RNA and DNA.
is a nitrogen-containing molecule having the chemical properties of a base.
is the attractive interaction of ahydrogen atom with anelectronegative atom
origin of replication
is a particular sequence in a genome at which replication is initiated
They aremotor proteins that move directionally along a nucleic acid phosphodiester backbone, separating two annealednucleic acid strands using energy derived from ATP hydrolysis.
single-strand binding proteins
binds to single stranded regions of DNA to prevent premature annealing
is the strand of DNA being replicated continuously.All DNA synthesis occurs 5'-3'
It grows away from the replication fork and it is synthesized discontinuously. Because the strand is growing away from the replication fork, it needs to be replicated in fragments because the Primase
fragments of DNA produced on the lagging strand
is a strand of nucleic acid that serves as a starting point for DNA synthesis
is an enzyme that can catalyse the joining of two large molecules by forming a new chemical bond (the glue)
5' - 3' Direction
the direction of DNA replication
DNA polymerase checks the DNA for errors
is a system for recognizing and repairing erroneous insertion, deletion and mis-incorporation of bases that can arise during DNA replication and recombination, as well as repairing some forms of DNA damage.
is a region of repetitive DNAsequences at the end of a chromosome, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration
adds DNAsequence repeats to the 3' end of DNA strands in the telomere regions
the copying of DNA into messenger RNA in gene expression
is a molecule of RNA that encodes a chemical "blueprint" for a protein product. mRNA is transcribedfrom a DNA template, and carries coding information to the sites of protein synthesis
is an enzyme that produces RNA.
it is a stretch of RNA that has only adenine bases
is a specially altered nucleotide on the 5' end of precursor messenger RNA and some other primary RNA transcripts as found ineukaryotes
is any nucleotide sequence within a gene that is removed by RNA splicing to generate the final mature RNA product of a gene.
noncoding regions of RNA
is a complex of snRNA and protein subunits that removesintrons from a transcribed pre-mRNA (hnRNA) segment.
is an adaptor molecule composed ofRNA, typically 73 to 93nucleotides in length, that is used in biology to bridge the four-letter genetic code (ATCG) in messenger RNA (mRNA) with the twenty-letter code of amino acids in proteins
The code defines how sequences of three nucleotides specify which amino acid will be added next during protein synthesis
is a unit made up of three nucleotides that correspond to the three bases of the codon on the mRNA.
is a chromosome abnormality caused by rearrangement of parts between nonhomologous chromosomes
is a nucleotidetriplet within messenger RNA that signals a termination of translation
is a type of mutation that causes the replacement of a single base nucleotide with another nucleotide of the genetic material,DNA or RNA
a functional group in a particular chemical compound is replaced by another group
is a mutation(a genetic aberration) in which a part of a chromosome or a sequence of DNA is missing
is the addition of one or morenucleotide base pairsinto a DNA sequence.
is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic material