chapter 15, Cardiovascular System Part 1

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tville01
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128268
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chapter 15, Cardiovascular System Part 1
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2012-02-09 07:42:21
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Heart Cardiovascular System anatomy Physiology
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Heart, Circulatory, anatomy and Physiology 2
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  1. During the contraction of the ventricles, which valves attached to the skeleton of the heart close and which open?
    • During ventricular contraction, the atrioventricular valves close
    • semilunar valves open.
  2. The tricuspid valve prevents a back flow of blood into the right atrium.
    A)True
    B)False
    A)True
  3. Since atria always receive blood, the vessels attached to them are all termed ________
    veins
  4. The average blood pressure in an artery is the _____.
    A)diastolic
    B)120/80 mmHg
    C)mean arterial
    D)systolic
    C)mean arterial
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. An ectopic pacemaker causes the arrhythmia called a _____.
    A)flutter
    B)premature beat
    C)fibrillation
    D)bradycardia event
    B)premature beat
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. The pulmonary semilunar valve prevents back flow of blood into the _____.
    A)left ventricle
    B)right ventricle
    C)right atrium
    D)left atrium
    B)right ventricle
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. The superior vena cava enters the _____ of the heart.
    A)right ventricle
    B)right atrium
    C)left atrium
    D)left ventricle
    B)right atrium
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. Where is the heart specifically located?
    A)pleural cavity
    B)thoracic cavity
    C)mediastinum
    D)ventral cavity
    C)mediastinum
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. Four chambered, hollow, muscular organ that is cone shaped
    Heart
  10. What is the average size of a heart?
    14cm long and 9 cm wide
  11. What borders the heart laterally, posteriorly, and anteriorly?
    • lateral= lungs
    • posterier- spinal column
    • anterior- sternum
  12. Where is the base of the heart? What blood vessels emerge from the base of the heart?
    • the broader portion, posterosuperiorly
    • Aorta and pulmonary trunk
  13. What is the Apex of the heart? What is it largely made up of and where can it be located?
    • Distal pointed portion (Apex)
    • made up of the left ventricle at the 5th intercostal space
  14. Name the coverings of the heart in order from proximal to distal.
    Heart, visceral pericardium(epicardium), parietal paricardium, fibrous pericardium.
  15. What is the outer of heart covering called? What is it's function?
    • fibrous pericardium
    • anchors the heart to the mediastinum, also know as a loose fitting sack
  16. Which heart covering is also known as visceral pericardium?
    epicardium
  17. What is fibrous pericardium composed of ?
    Thick, white fibrous CT
  18. What are the visceral and parietal pericardium composed of?
    serous membrane that consist of CT covered by epithelium
  19. What is the delicate inner layer sac that covers the heart called?
    epicardium
  20. When the visceral pericardium folds over what covering of the heart is formed? What does the new layer become?
    • parietal pericardium
    • The parietal pericardium becomes the inner linning of the fibrous pericardium
  21. Where is the pericardial cavity located? What is it's function?
    • between the visceral and parietal pericardium
    • it moistins the opposing surfaces and help movement of the heart in the pericardial sac as it (heart) contracts and pumps
  22. What fluid is located in the pericardial cavity and how much is there?
    • pericardial fluid
    • 25-35 ml
  23. What are the 3 layers of the heart wall?
    • Epicardium
    • Myocardium
    • Endocardium
  24. Which 2 layers of the heart wall have blood and lymph cappillaries and nerve fibers?
    • epicardium
    • myocardium
  25. What is the function of the epicardium?
    protective outer covering of the heart
  26. What constitutes the great masses of the heart?
    myocardium
  27. What does the myocardium consist of?
    cardiac muscle that forms a complex network
  28. What is the function of the myocardium?
    contracts and pumps the blood out of the heart
  29. What is the inner lining of the heart?
    endocardium
  30. What does endocardium consist of ?
    epithelium and CT
  31. What layer of the heart contains purkinje fibers that are involved with the conduction system of the heart?
    endocardium
  32. What are purkinje fibers?
    specilized cardiac muscle fibers that are involved in the conduction system of the heart
  33. What does endocardium line?
    heart chambers, valves, and the great blood vessels that enter and leave the heart
  34. What are blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart called?
    arteries
  35. What are blood vessels that carry blood to the heart called?
    veins
  36. What are the upper chambers of the heart called?
    artia(singular= atrium)
  37. What is the function of the atria?
    they serve as resivoirs between contractions
  38. Where do the atria recieve blood from?
    veins
  39. What part of the heart has thin muscular walls but is highly expandable?
    atria
  40. What are auricles?
    earlike, expandable portions of the atria
  41. What seperates the right and left atria?
    interatrial septum
  42. What are the lower portions of the heart called?
    ventricles
  43. What is the function of the ventricles?
    pumps blood out of the heart and into the arteries
  44. What sperarates the right and left ventricle?
    interventricular septum
  45. What is the opening between an atrium and it's ventricle?
    artioventricular orifice
  46. What guards each orifice?
    an AV valve(artioventricular valve)
  47. What are the 2 AV valves? Where are they located?
    • tricuspid valve, between the right atrium and right ventricle
    • bicuspid valve, between the left atrium and the left ventricle
  48. What is a cusp?
    flaps of fibrous tissue (covered with endothelium), that make up the AV valve and project from the heart wall into the opening btwn the atrium and ventricle
  49. Strong, fibrous strings that attach to cusps on the ventricular side?
    Chordae tendineae
  50. Muscles that extend inward from the ventricular wall and attach to chorade tendineae
    papillary muscles
  51. What is the function of the papillary muscles and the chordae tendineae?
    to prevent cusps from swinging into the atria when the AV valve closes
  52. What veins supply the right atria with blood?
    • Superior and Inferior Vena Cava
    • Coronary sinus
  53. What guards the right atriventricular orifice?
    tricuspid valve
  54. What is the function of the tricuspid valve?
    • allows blood to flow from the right atrium to the right ventricle
    • prevents blood from moving from the right ventricle to the right atrium
  55. What happens to the tricuspid valve when the blood pressure in greater in the right atrium?
    It passivly folds out of the way for blood to move to the right ventricle
  56. Where does the right ventricle pump the blood to?
    pulmonary trunk which divides into left and right pulmonary arteries
  57. What guards the base of the pulmonary trunk? How many cusps does it contain?
    • The pulmonary (semilunar) valve
    • 3 cusps
  58. What is the position of the pulmonary valve when the right ventricle contracts?
    open
  59. What causes the pulmonary valve to close?
    When the ventricular wall relaxes the blood backs up in the pulmonary trunk causing the pulmonary valve to close
  60. Which ventricle has thinner muscle?
    the right ventricle
  61. What does a thinner muscular wall create? Why is that necessary?
    lower pressure to move the blood a shorter distance to the lungs(pulmonary circuit)
  62. Where does the left atrium recieve blood from?
    four pulmonary veins, 2 from the right lung, 2 from the left lung
  63. What guards the left atrioventricular orifice?
    The bicuspid valve aka mitral valve
  64. What is the function of the bicuspid valve?
    to prevent blood from flowing back into the left atrium from the left ventricle
  65. Where does the left ventricle pump blood to?
    the Aorta
  66. What guards the aorta? How many cusps does it contain?
    • th aortic semilunar valve
    • 3
  67. What is the pulminary circuit?
    thin walls in the right ventricle, lower pressure, delivers blood short distance to the lungs
  68. What is the fuction of the aortic valve?
    to prevent blood from moving from the aorta into the left ventricle during muscle relaxation
  69. What is the systemic circuit?
    thicker muscluar walls of the left ventricle contract with greater force, increasing pressure to ditribute blood throughout the body(systemic circuit)
  70. What does the skeleton of the heart consist of ?
    • dense fibrous CT rings that enclose the
    • pulmonary trunk, aorta, and atrioventricular orifices
    • also cosists of the interventricular septum
  71. What are the 3 functions of the skeleton of the heart?
    • attachment for heart valves
    • prevents outlets of the heart chambers from dilating excessively during contraction
    • physically isolates the atrial and ventricual muscular cells
  72. Where does Deoxygenated blood enter the heart and from where?
    the right side of the heart from the superior and inferior vena cava and the coronary sinus
  73. What happens as the right atrium contracts?
    blood gets forces through the tricuspid valve to the right ventricle
  74. What happens to the tricuspid valve as the right ventricle contracts?
    it closes
  75. After the tricuspid valve closes where does the blood go?End at the lungs
    through the pulmonary valve, into the pulmonary trunk, which then divides into the right and left pulmonary arteries leading to the lungs
  76. Where does gas exchange take place?
    between the blood in the capillaries and the air in the alevoli(lungs)
  77. What gets removed once the blood is oxygenated in the lungs?
    some of the carbon dioxide
  78. Where does the blood go once it has been oxygenated? go through steps to aorta
    returns to the left side of the heart through the pulmonary veins, enters the left atrium. as the left atrium contracts blood flows through the mitral vavle to left ventricle, which contracts, sends blood through aortic valve to aorta
  79. What happens to blood after it has reached the aorta? end at right atrium
    aorta branches off, blood enters the systemic circuit to deliver oxigenated blood to all cells, body uses oxygen and produces carbon dioxide, the deoxygenated blood returns to right atrium
  80. The cardiac control center of the ________ coordiantes the innervation of the heart
    medulla oblongata
  81. The ______ acts to receive from all the veins of the heart
    coronary sinus
  82. The point in the conduction system of the heart where the impulse is temporarily delayed
    AV node
  83. The blood pressure in the systemic arteries is greatest during
    ventricular systole
  84. The hepatic portal system is an unusual vein in that it is transporting
    nutrient rich blood
  85. If excessive fluid retention increases blood volume, blood pressure is likely to
    increase
  86. The first branches which come off the aorta are the right and left _______ arteries
    coronary
  87. During ________, the atrioventricular valves are closed and the semilunar valves are open
    ventricular systole
  88. The _______ is also referred to as the pacemaker of the heart
    S-A node
  89. The _____ are the last part of the electrical conducting system of the heart
    purkinje fibers
  90. What event causes the normal heart sounds?
    closing of the valves
  91. What is the sequance of veins returning blood from the stomach?
    gastric--, hepatic portal--, liver--, hepatic--, inferior vena cava--, right atrium
  92. What does the p wave of an ECG represent?
    atrial depolorization
  93. The amount of blood ejected by the ventricles per beat is termed
    stroke volume
  94. The ____ acts to slow action potentials, while the _____ transmits these signals very quickly
    A-V nodes; purkinje fibers
  95. Which valve prevents backflow of blood from the left ventricle to the left atrium?
    bicuspid atrioventricular
  96. The specilized area of the myocardium that acts to anchor the chordae tendineae is the
    papillary muscle
  97. The production and conduction of action potentials in the heart produces a recordable tracing of the electrical activity of the heart is called
    EKG
  98. Which tunic of the artert contains endothelium?
    tunica intera
  99. The _____ rhythmically forms impulses initating each heartbeat and transmits these impulses to the
    S-A Node. A-V node

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