Biology Chapter 33

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  1. invertebrates
    • -animals that lack a backbone,
    • -most numerous/ abundant animals on earth,
    • -range from microscopic to 59 ft
    • - make up 95% of known animal species
    • - 23 phyla total and 6 major phyla
  2. 6 major phyla of invertebrates
    • - prorifera
    • - cnidaria
    • - worms
    • - chinodermata
    • - mollusca
    • - arthropoda
  3. prorifera
    • sponges: sessile, suspension eaters
    • -5,500 species
  4. cnidaria
    • -diploblastic
    • -radial symmetry
    • -have gastrovascular cavity that serves as a mouth and anus
    • -10,000 speices
    • -oldest eumetazoans (true tissue)
    • -four clades: hydrozo (hydra), scyphozoa (sea jellies), cubozoa (sea wasp), anthozoa (anemone, coral)
    • -some will be only mesua (sea jellies)
    • -some will only be polyp (anemones)
    • -some will be both (hydrozoans)
  5. worms
    platyhelminths, nematoda, annelida
  6. echinodermata
    • sea stars, sea cucumbers, sand dollars, sea urchins
    • - 7,000 speices
    • -bilaterial symmetry as larvae ( not adults)
    • - move and feed using a network of internal canals that pump water to different parts of their body
  7. mollusca
    • clams, musscles, snails, octopus, squid, nautilus ( no barnacles)
    • -have a soft body which in many species is protected by a hard shell
  8. arthropoda
    • 75% of living animals
    • - insects, arachnids (spiders and scorpions) , crustaceans (barnacles)
    • -all have segmented exoskeleton and jointed appendages
    • - 1 million species
  9. sponges
    • basal animals
    • oldest living animal
    • sedentary: no migration
    • vast size range from a few millimeters ( less than a centimeter ) to a few meters ( several feet)
    • some species are fresh water variety and some species are marine water variety
    • suspension feeders (filter feeders)
    • lack true tissues
    • metazoans not eumetazoans
    • have several cell types
    • basically a sack with pores
  10. eumetazoans
    true animals
  11. metazoans
    animals without true tissues
  12. suspension feeders
    • capture food from the water flowing through their body
    • ex: baleen whale
  13. spongocoel
    central cavity, cavity of the sponge
  14. osculum
    opening to the spongocoel
  15. choanocytes
    • cells involved in feeding
    • lines the central cavity (spongocoel)
    • looks morphologically similar to choanoflagellates
    • feeding cell
    • can produce eggs (gametes)
  16. mesohyl
    • gelatinious material (layer)
    • separates the choanocyte cells from the epidermal cells
    • eggs remain here after gamete formation
  17. ameobacytes
    • utilize pseudopodia
    • found in mesohyl
    • they look like ameobas
    • breaks down nutrients further
    • transports nutrients to other cells ofthe sponge ( this is how they are involved with feeding)
    • produce skeletal fibers hard (spicules) and soft (flexible, spongen based fiber)
    • can produce eggs (gametes)
  18. spicules
    • look spiky
    • located in mesohyl
    • type of fiber found in ameobocytes
    • ridgid
    • made of calcium carbonate or silica
    • acts likea skeleton or vertebrates
  19. cyte
    refers to cells
  20. phagocytosis
    the process in which a cell ingests other cells
  21. sexual
    having sexual organs or reproducting by processes involving both sexes
  22. asexual
    having no sex or sexual organs
  23. hermaphrodism
    the same individual alternates between male and female ( each reproductive cycle), producing eggs and sperm in a sequence not at the same time
  24. which parts of the sponge produce gametes?
    choanocytes and amoebocytes
  25. where does fertilization occur in a sponge?
    inside the mesohyl
  26. cribrostatin
    • antibiotic
    • especially useful against penicillin resistant straints of streptococcus
    • could possibly contain anti-cancer agents
  27. gastrovascular cavity
    single opening that functions as the mouth and anus
  28. polyps
    • cylindrical shape
    • sessile
    • eats and poops from same hole (mouth and anus)
    • mouth always point upward
    • ex:hydra, sea anemone, strawberry anemone
    • asexual form
  29. medusa
    • medusae: plural
    • take polyp and turn it upside down
    • motile (planktonic)
    • not self directed
    • the move when they beat
    • not stuck to a substrate, but don't have their own ability of locomotion
    • bell shape, not cylidrical
    • ex: sea jellies, sea wasp, box jellies
    • sexual body form
  30. hydrozoans
    • part of life is sexual and part of life is asexual
    • ex: obelia
    • asexual part of life is budding, which form another individual
    • sexual part of life is reproductive polyp producing medusae, each medusa forms a different gamete
    • haploid form diploid then a zygote then sessile form
    • hydra goes asexual all the way it only turns sexual as a survival strategy when its stressed out
  31. cniocytes
    function in defense and prey capture
  32. nematocyts
    contain stinging thread that can penetrate the body wall of the cnidarian's prey
  33. four clade of cnidaria
    • hydrozoans
    • scyphozoans
    • cubozoans
    • anthozoans
  34. hydrozoans
    • most alternate between polyp and medusa forms
    • ex: obelia, hydra
  35. scyphozoans
    • medusa is the prominent stage
    • most species live among plankton as jellies
    • live in open ocean
    • no polyp stage
  36. cubozoans
    • boxed-shape medusa stage
    • have complex eyes embedded in the fringe of medusae
    • strong swimmers
    • most live in tropical oceans
    • have high toxic cnidocytes
    • ex:sea wasp
  37. anthozoans
    • flower animals
    • occur only as polyps
    • many create a hard exoskeleton of calcium carbonate
    • live in tropical seas (coral)
    • ex: coral, anemones
    • being destroyed du to global warming
  38. cnidocyte
    • "cnido" comes from the Greek meaning "nettle"
    • its a stinging cell that has a sharp trigger
    • unique to cnidarians
    • used for defense and catching prey
    • some have sticky threads
  39. sticky threads
    • found in cnidarians
    • attaches to whatever triggers ( anything that brushes up against it, activates cnidocyte, cnidocyte reactes in under a second, latching on to the victim/prey and bringing it to its mouth, its not stinging)
  40. nematocyts
    • found inside some cnidocytpe in a specialized capsule that contains a toxic thread
    • acts like a harpoon ( shoots out and inject venom and paralyzes whatever attacks it (victim, prey, predator)
    • subcellular
  41. nerve net
    • not centralized
    • brainless
    • simple sensory structures throughout the whole body
    • can sense stimuli from all direction and responds to stimuli
    • ex: world wide web, not central loctation, like the white house is centralized part of the government of the country
  42. lophotrochozoan phyla
    flatworms, rotifers, ectoprocts, brachiopods, molluscs and annelids
  43. protonephridia
    and excretory system such as the flame bulb system of flatworms, consisting of a network of tubules lacking internal openings
  44. Lophotrochozoans
    • can live in fresh water, marine water, damp soil
    • include: platyhelminthes, totifer, lophophorates, molluscs and annelids
    • ex: rotifers
  45. alimentary canal
    mouth at one end and anus at the other ; digestive tube
  46. parthenogenesis
    genesis=beginning, partherno=virgin , "virgin" beginning, unfertilized eggs= complete organsism
  47. planarians
    • a free-living flatworm found in ponds and streams
    • they are hemaphrodites
    • can reproduce sexually and asexually
  48. rotifers
    • range in size from .05mm to 2mm
    • can be smaller than some single celled protists
    • have alimentary canalcilia beat water causing objects to come closer to the mouth
    • they are pseudocoelomates
    • reproduce through parthenogenesis
    • some species are female all the time
    • asexual fossils found of rotifer 35 mya
    • other speicies (less than ideal) use sexual reproduction and make 2 eggs egg #1 is a female, egg #2 is male (very primative , can't feed itself, not developed, just fertilizes female)
    • makes a physically tough zygoteis dormant until conditions become better
    • sexual reproduction only occurs under bad conditions
  49. ecdysozoans
    • names from edysis prosses
    • edysis means to molt or "molter"
    • claim to fame is the most species rich in the animal kingdom (has the most members)
    • broken up into nematodes, arthropods: chelicerforms, myriapods, insects and hexapods, crustaceans
  50. arthropods
    • reference to pyramid of life ( about 10^18 in number)
    • arthro= jointed, pods=feet or foot, "jointed feet"
    • have a segmented body
    • jointed appendages
    • outside of the body is called the cuticle
    • have antennae
    • have well developed sensory organs: antennae, compound eyes ( multiple lenses like a fly) , smell receptors
    • have open circulatory system (fludi flows out and bathes the tissue within sinuses
    • don't have blood (blood is found in a closed circulatory system, arthropods have hemolymph
  51. cuticle
    exoskeleton= hard on outside, made of protein and chitin (polysacharide)
  52. hemolyph
    arthropod circulatory fluid in an open circulatory system
  53. hemocoel
    space/sinuses where organs are bathed in hemolyph
  54. tracheal system
    branched air tubes/ ducts that run throughout the body of the animal, tubes open to environments in tubes, ex: grasshopper
  55. chelicerformes/chelicerates
    group within the arthropods, acquired their name from their fangs or pinchers (chelicerae) , lack antennae, have simple eyes
  56. chelicerae
    pinchers or fangs
  57. myriapods
    have a pair of antennae, have jawlike mandibles, have a segmented body with many legs ( not nessesarily 1000 or 100 because of their name) Ex: millipedes and centipedes
  58. insects
    have 6 legs, can be winged or wingless, if winged the wings are part of the cuticle, undergoes one of two types of metamorphosis: incomplete or complete
  59. incomplete metamorphosis
    known as the nymph stage ( a mini version of the adult= juvenile), smaller version of adult, sexually immature, wingless, has to undergo serveral rounds ( cycles ) of molting to become an adult, the adult is sexually mature, phsyically larger and winged
  60. complete metamorphosis
    larval stage, ( can be called a magot, grup, caterpillar), sexually immature, doesn't look like the adult at all, goes through radical developmental stages to become an adult, Ex: a butterfly
  61. reproduction of insects
    • sexual
    • mates will use sounds, pharemoes (smell) and bright color to attract a mate
    • several speices mate once in a lifetime
    • some species have a spermatheca
  62. spermatheca
    stores sperm in a pouch or special organ, female can choose when to fertilize eggs, can be used to fertilize more than one batch of eggs
  63. crustaceans
    • found in marine and fresh water habitats
    • only arthropods with 2 pairs of antennae and legs on their abdomen
    • if they loose an appendage they can generate a new appendage during molting
    • have a special gland to regulate salinity of their hemolymph
  64. Four groups of Crustaceans
    decapods, isopods, copepods, and barnacles
  65. decapods
    • crabs, shrimp, lobsters, and crayfish
    • have 10 feet (5 pairs)
    • have a carapace
  66. carapace
    a cuticle hardened by calcium carbonate
  67. isopods
    • means equal legs
    • have 7 pairs of legs
    • bottom dwellers
    • ex: pill bugs
    • have flattened body with short abdominal segments
    • can range in size from quite small to large
  68. copepods
    • small planktonics crustaceans
    • ex: krill
    • lack a carapace
    • lack compound eyes
  69. barnacles
    • sessile ( attach to surfaces)
    • even though they don't look like crustaceans their larval stage is similar to other crustaceans
  70. Protostomes we have studied so far
    protifera, cnidaria, lophotrchozoa, ecdysozoa
  71. deuterostomes
    broken down into echinoderms and chordates
  72. echinoderms
    • means spiny skins
    • marine
    • includes sea stars, brittle stars, sea urchins, sand dollars, sea lilies and feathers, sea daises , and sea cucumbers
    • sessile and slow moving
    • have a water vascular system used for locomotion and feeding
    • larva= bilateral symmetry
    • do not have radial symmetry
  73. Chordates
    • includes: invertebrates, vertebrates, and hagfish
    • some species will start out developmentally as chordates but may loose the spine during development
    • during development: chordates will have a notochord
    • have pharyngeal clefts and pharyngeal slits
    • has a muscular post anterior tail ( may arise during development then disapper)
  74. notochord
    a long flexible rod made out of mesodermal cells that are very tightly packed and it runs along the dorsal of the animal, become gelatinous material between vertebrae, distributes hydrolic pressure
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Biology Chapter 33
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