The Cell Cycle
Card Set Information
The Cell Cycle
is the combination of DNA and proteins that make up the contents of the nucleus of a cell.
is an organized structure of DNA andprotein found in cells.
is a molecular unit of heredity of a living organism.
are two identical copies of a chromatid connected by acentromere. Compare sister chromatids to homologous chromosomes
is the process by which aeukaryotic cell separates thechromosomesin its cell nucleus into two identical sets, in two separate nuclei.
divides the nuclei,cytoplasm,organelles andcell membraneinto two cells containing roughly equal shares of these cellular components.
Resting (Go phase)
cells are doing nothing
the growing phase
all of the chromosomes have been replicated
production of microtubules
is a stage ofmitosis in which the chromatin condenses into double rod-shaped structures called chromosomes in which the chromatin becomes visible
align in the middle of the cell before being separated into each of the two daughter cells
Two daughter nuclei form in the cell.
refers to thesubcellular structure that segregates chromosomesbetween daughter cells duringcell division.
is the indentation of the cell's surface that begins the process of cleavage, by which animal and some algal cellsundergo cytokinesis
is a point in G1 of the animal cell cycle at which the cell becomes “committed” to the cell cycle
is a naturally occurring substance capable of stimulatingcellular growth
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)
is one of the numerous growth factors, or proteins that regulatecell growth and division
describes a situation in which population growth is curtailed by crowding, predators and competition.
must be attached
is a special type of cell division necessary forsexual reproduction. The cells produced by meiosis are gametes orspores.
is any biological cell forming the body of an organism; that is, in a multicellular organism, any cell other than a gamete, germ cell,gametocyte or undifferentiated stem cell
is the number and appearance of chromosomes in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell.
arechromosome pairs of approximately the same length, centromere position, and staining pattern, with genes for the same characteristics at corresponding loci
is a biological system that determines the development of sexual characteristics in an organism
is a chromosome that is not a sex chromosome, or allosome; that is to say, there is an equal number of copies of the chromosome in males and females
is a cell that fuses with another cell during fertilization (conception) inorganisms that reproduce sexually
A human somatic cell contains 46 chromosomes: 2 complete haploid sets, which make up 23 homologous chromosome pairs
cells have two homologous copies of eachchromosome, usually one from the mother and one from the father.
is the fusion of gametes to produce a new organism. In animals, the process involves the fusion of anovum with a sperm
is the initial cell formed when two gametecells are joined by means of sexual reproduction
paired and replicated chromosomes
is the pairing of two homologous chromosomes that occurs duringmeiosis.
is an exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes