The Cell Cycle

Card Set Information

The Cell Cycle
2012-01-16 18:56:42
cell cycle

Bio Midterm
Show Answers:

  1. chromatin
    is the combination of DNA and proteins that make up the contents of the nucleus of a cell.
  2. chromosomes
    is an organized structure of DNA andprotein found in cells.
  3. genes
    is a molecular unit of heredity of a living organism.
  4. sister chromatids
    are two identical copies of a chromatid connected by acentromere. Compare sister chromatids to homologous chromosomes
  5. mitosis
    is the process by which aeukaryotic cell separates thechromosomesin its cell nucleus into two identical sets, in two separate nuclei.
  6. cytokinesis
    divides the nuclei,cytoplasm,organelles andcell membraneinto two cells containing roughly equal shares of these cellular components.
  7. Resting (Go phase)
    cells are doing nothing
  8. G1 phase
    the growing phase
  9. S phase
    all of the chromosomes have been replicated
  10. G2 Phase
    production of microtubules
  11. Prophase
    is a stage ofmitosis in which the chromatin condenses into double rod-shaped structures called chromosomes in which the chromatin becomes visible
  12. Metaphase
    align in the middle of the cell before being separated into each of the two daughter cells
  13. Telophase
    Two daughter nuclei form in the cell.
  14. mitotic spindle
    refers to thesubcellular structure that segregates chromosomesbetween daughter cells duringcell division.
  15. cleavage furrow
    is the indentation of the cell's surface that begins the process of cleavage, by which animal and some algal cellsundergo cytokinesis
  16. restriction point
    is a point in G1 of the animal cell cycle at which the cell becomes “committed” to the cell cycle
  17. growth factor
    is a naturally occurring substance capable of stimulatingcellular growth
  18. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)
    is one of the numerous growth factors, or proteins that regulatecell growth and division
  19. density-dependent inhibition
    describes a situation in which population growth is curtailed by crowding, predators and competition.
  20. anchorage dependence
    must be attached
  21. meiosis
    is a special type of cell division necessary forsexual reproduction. The cells produced by meiosis are gametes orspores.
  22. somatic cells
    is any biological cell forming the body of an organism; that is, in a multicellular organism, any cell other than a gamete, germ cell,gametocyte or undifferentiated stem cell
  23. karyotype
    is the number and appearance of chromosomes in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell.
  24. homologous chromosomes
    arechromosome pairs of approximately the same length, centromere position, and staining pattern, with genes for the same characteristics at corresponding loci
  25. sex chromosomes
    is a biological system that determines the development of sexual characteristics in an organism
  26. autosomes
    is a chromosome that is not a sex chromosome, or allosome; that is to say, there is an equal number of copies of the chromosome in males and females
  27. gametes
    is a cell that fuses with another cell during fertilization (conception) inorganisms that reproduce sexually
  28. haploid cell
    A human somatic cell contains 46 chromosomes: 2 complete haploid sets, which make up 23 homologous chromosome pairs
  29. diploid cell
    cells have two homologous copies of eachchromosome, usually one from the mother and one from the father.
  30. fertilization
    is the fusion of gametes to produce a new organism. In animals, the process involves the fusion of anovum with a sperm
  31. zygote
    is the initial cell formed when two gametecells are joined by means of sexual reproduction
  32. tetrad
    paired and replicated chromosomes
  33. synapsis
    is the pairing of two homologous chromosomes that occurs duringmeiosis.
  34. crossing over
    is an exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes