ABA: Principles of Behavior: Behavior Reduction

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ABA: Principles of Behavior: Behavior Reduction
2012-01-17 01:37:10
ABA Behaviorism Skinner Applied behavior analysis reduction

MO, reinforcers, extinction, punishment
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  1. Motivating Operation
    Variables in the environment that can alter the relative value of a particular reinforcer at a particular time.

    • o At that moment = there are a set of bxs that are
    • more likely to occur b/c those bxs have produced reinforcer in the past

    *MO's are = fleeting

    Can be used to inc bx (i.e., by the use of potent reinforcers)
  2. Variables of Reinforcer Effectiveness (= what affects reinforcers strength)
    • = D.I.S.C.
    • 1) Deprivation
    • 2) Immediacy
    • 3) Size
    • 4) Contingency
  3. Deprivation of reinforcer
    • when a person hasn’t had access to a particular reinforcer for a significant period
    • of time.
    • This can increase the value of a reinforcer.
  4. Immediacy of reinforcer
    the more immediate the delivary of reinforcer = the more effective it is
  5. Contingency of reinforcer
    reinforcer = is only delivered for target bx = reinforcer will be more effective
  6. Size/Magnitude of reinforcer
    • need to give enough of the reinforcer so that is
    • valuable to the individual

    o too little = may not increase the likelihood of the bx

    o too much = may satiate person
  7. Continuous schedule of reinforcment definition
    • is used to learn/teach new behaviors
    • *bx is reinforced all of the time
  8. Interrmittent schdule of reinforcement definition
    • maintains a behvaior
    • *behavior is reinforced some of the time
    • *generates a high repsonse rate = prevents the bx fromstopping
  9. Schedules of Reinforcement
    specifies how often a particular bx is followed by a reinforcer

    1) Continuous Schedule

    2) Intermittent Schedule
  10. Intermittent Schedules of Reinforcement
    1) Ratio Schedules

    2) Interval Schedules
  11. Ratio Schedules definition
    are based on = the number of responses
  12. Types of Ratio Scedules
    1) Fixed Ratio Schedules

    2) Variable Ratio Schedules
  13. Fixed ratio schedule (FR) definition
    • schedule of reinforcement after a fixed number of responses
    • (ex) FR3)
    • *usually produce a pause after reinforcement
  14. Variable Ratio Schedule (VR) definition
    • an average number of responses must be made
    • before the reinforcer = is delivered = varies

    • *Produce high rates of responding without a pause
    • *most resistant to extinction
    • = individual is less likely to give up b/c they don't know when rfmt will occurr (ex) gambling)
  15. Interval Schedules definition
    are based on = passage of time
  16. Types of Interval Schedules
    1) Fixed Interval

    2) Variable Interval
  17. Fixed Interval schedule definition
    • person only get reinforcer once the response is given after the fixed amount of time
    • *doesn’t matter how many times the bx occurs
  18. Variable Interval Schedule
    • reinforcer is delivered for the first response
    • that occurs after a variable amount of time

    • o The person being reinforced doesn’t know when
    • they will be reinforced

    • o Number of responses = doesn’t not influence the
    • variability of reinforcement
  19. Extinction
    when the response = no longer produces reinforcement

    • *Can be used to decrease a behavior
    • *taking rfmt away too abrutly may cause bx to stop
  20. Extinction Burst
    • what happens when a behavior = is no longer reinforced and the bx = briefly increase in =
    • 1) frequency
    • 2) intensity
    • 3) duration
    • before it decreases

    *= bring about variability in responding (=may engage in old or different bxs that they have done in the past)
  21. Spontaneous Recovery
    *sometimes occurs with extinction procedures

    • even though bx has not been reinforced it may occur again with the same freqency and intensity it once did
    • *if extinction continues to remain in place when this occurs the bx will = go away again
  22. Punishment
    an event that = occurs after a bx and decreases that bx
  23. Negative Punishment
    removing a stimulus (aversive event) after the bx and decreases that bx
  24. Time out
    • type of negative punishment
    • = the withdrawl or the opportunity to earn positivereinforcement or loss of access to positive reinforcement for a specific periodof time

    • *Effective only when =
    • 1) time in is valuable to indi
    • 2)And rfmt is not given during timeout
  25. Response cost
    type of negative reinforcement

    • *bx cost them something
    • * = removal of pleasant stimuli or privileges after a bx
  26. Examples of Negative Punishment procedures used
    1) Time out from positive reinforcement

    2) Response cost
  27. Positive Punishment
    when an event is added and then a bx decreases
  28. Unwanted Side Effects of Punishment
    • *may evoke emotional reactions (escape/avoidance/ anxiety/ agression)
    • *the punished person may imitate the punishment procedures on others