mrt 255

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Author:
marlasherman
ID:
128288
Filename:
mrt 255
Updated:
2012-01-16 19:54:29
Tags:
Pathology
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Description:
Skeletal Congenital Disorders
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  1. Achondroplasia
    • Inherited
    • most common form of dawfism
    • Disorder of growth of cartilage
  2. What results from Achondroplasia?
    • Premature ossification, permanent limitation of skeletal development.
    • Protruding forehead and short, thick arms and legs on a normal trunk.
  3. Which Congenital disorder is the most common from of dawfism?
    Achondroplasia
  4. Osteogenesis Imperfecta( Brittle bone disease)
    • Inherited disorder of connective
    • Servere osteoporosis
    • Thin defective ortices
    • Disease characterized by brittle bones
    • Children prone to fractures
    • Severity depends on type
  5. Achondroplasia
    Radiographic apperence
    • Progressive narrowing of interpedicular distances
    • Scalloping of posterior margins of lumbar vertebral bodies
    • Skull has a thin growth plate
  6. Developemental Dysplasisa of the hip
    • Malformation of the acetabulum causing displacement of the femoral head.
    • More common in large neonates and in breech delivery
  7. Common views of dysplasia of the hip
    • AP pelvis
    • Bilateral frogleg hips
    • Ultrasound for newborns
  8. Spina Bifida
    • Posterior defect of spinal canal
    • Most often occurs in the lumbar region
    • Can also befound in the cervical region
    • Failure of posterior elements to fuse properly causing gap between the lamina
  9. Complications of Spina Bifida
    • Menlingocele- Herniation of the meninges
    • Myelomenlingocele or myelocele- Herniation of the meninges with part of the spinal cord or nerve roots
    • Varying amounts of paralysis
    • dysfunction can occur
  10. Common views for Spina Bifida
    • AP of affected vertebrae
    • Lateral of affected vertabrae
  11. Osteomalacia(metabolic bone dystrophy)
    • Adult form of rickets
    • Vitamin D deficiency in diet
    • Lack of exposure to UV radiation(sunlight)which converts sterols in the skin into vitamin D
    • Failure of absorption of calcium and phosphorus
  12. Osteomalacia
    Radiographic apperence
    • Loss of bone density
    • cortex is thinned
  13. Rickets(metabolic bone dystrophy)
    • Systemic disease of infancy and childheed that is the equivalent of osteomalacia in mature skeleton
    • Vitamin D deficiency
    • lack of sunlight
    • most common in premature infants
  14. Rickets
    Radiographic apperence
    • Metaphyseal ends of bone become cupped and frayed
    • Sternal ends of ribs - Characteristic beading
  15. Osteoporosis (metabolic bone dystrophy)
    Generalized or localized deficiency of bone density-bone mass is decreased
  16. Causes of Osteoporosis
    • Cushing's syndrome, prolonged steroid use,
    • disused or immobilized emtremities
    • Poor diet
    • aging
    • postmenopausal
  17. Osteoporosis
    Radiographic apperence
    • Cortical thinning with irregularity and resorption of the immer surfaces
    • may lead to fractures ( Compression fractures of one or more verebral bodies, hip fractures, kyphosis)
  18. Osteoporosis
    Common projections
    • AP and lateral thoracic and lumbar spine for suspected compression
    • ( common areas wrist, hip , humerus)
  19. Paget's Disease or Osteitis Deformans
    • Chronic metabolic bone disease of the skeleton
    • Destruction of bone followed by a reparitive process results in weakened, deformed and thickened bony structures that tend to fracture easly
    • Particularly affects the pelvis, femurs,skull, tibias, verebrae,clavicles and ribs
  20. Paget's disease
    Radiographic apperence
    • Skull-cotton wool appearence
    • Vertebral bodies -Ivory vertebrae may occur
    • Pelvis -Thickeneing of pelvic brim
  21. Paget's disease
    Common views
    • AP and lateral of the affected long bone
    • AP of the pelvis ( if affected)
    • PA axial projection and lateral of the skull ( if affected)

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