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What is SOAP and SOAPIER
- Subjective Data
- Objective Data
- Assessment (+ Nursing Diagnosis)
- Plan (What you did)
Testing for visual acuity involves which tests
- 1. Distance vision: The Snellen's chart
- 2. Near vision: Rosenbaum
- 3. Color vision: Ishihara cards (identify embeded figures) or identify color bars on the Snellen's chart.
The interior ocular structures are inspected with an instrument called an
Someone with 20/20 vision can read at 20 feet what the normal eye can read at 20 feet. Therefore what does 20/60 mean
Indicates diminished eye vision. You can read at 60 feet what someone can read at 20
What should be documented with the Snellen's test
- 1. Distance in feet the patient was from the test (usually 20)
- 2. On the bottom, mark the number under the smallest line of letters the patient correctly identified (40, 200)
- 3. Number of letters missed
- 4. If the patient wore glasses
Visual fields can be tested with
The confrontation test
The confrontation test using static confrontation
Stand 2-3 ft in front of patient. Your eyes and the patients eyes should be at the same level. Patient covers Left eye, you cover your right eye. Instruct patient to look at your open eye at all times. Ask the patient to tell you how many fingers you are holding in each of the 4 quadrants
The confrontation test using kinetic confrontation
Same general procedure as static but, wiggle your fingers from a far distal point and move them toward the center of each quadrant. Instruct patient to say "now" when they come into view.
Name the 3 basic tests used to assess the movement of the extraocular muscles
- 1. Corneal light reflex (Hirschberg test)
- 2. The Cover Test
- 3. The Cardinal Fields of Gaze
What is the corneal light reflux, Hirschberg test?
Tests for strabismus (imbalance of eye muscles, one eye can't focus). Patient stares straight ahead at your nose. Stand in front of the patient and shine a penlight at the bridge of the patient's nose. Note where the light relfects on the cornea of each eye. Light reflection should be the same in both eyes
The cover test:
Helps with assessment of ocular alignment. Stand in front of the patien and ask the patient to focus on the bridge of your nose. Place an opaque card over 1 eye. Inspect for any movement of the uncovered eye that may indicate refixation of the gaze. Remove the cover and observe the previously covered eye for refixation. Gaze should be steady and fixed.
Pupils Equal, Round, Reactive to Light and Accomodation
By what age should children have visual acuity to that of adults in both eyes
What are the two leading causes of vision loss and blindness in the United States
Cataracts (clouding in the lens) and AMD (Degrading of the macula, which is responsible for sharp central vision needed to, say, drive)