The Chemical Level of Organization Chapter #2

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The Chemical Level of Organization Chapter #2
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2012-01-16 20:41:15
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second lecture: chemical level of organization
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  1. Basic Chemistry
    • •Element
    • –A substance that can not be
    • broken down into two or more substances
    • –Human body is composed of 26
    • elements
    • •4 major elements
    • –carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen make up approximately 96% of the body’s weight
    • •8 lesser elements
    • •14 trace elements
    • •Compound
    • –Joint atoms of two or more elements
  2. Atom
    • •Atom is the smallest part of an element
    • •Atom is composed of:
    • -Nucleus
    • •Neutron
    • –The neutral particle in the atomic nucleus
    • •Proton
    • –The positive particle in the atomic nucleus
    • –Electron
    • •The negative particle found in orbital's surrounding nucleus
  3. Atomic Number and Mass Number
    • •Atomic Number
    • –Equal to the number of protons in each atom
    • –In a stable element (electrically neutral), the number of protons equals the number of electrons.
    • •1H - one proton, one electron
    • •6C - six protons, six electrons

    • •Mass Number
    • –Protons and Neutrons have about the same mass
    • –Mass number equals the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus
    • •12C – six protons, six neutrons
    • •16O – eight protons, eight neutrons
  4. Isotopes
    •An Isotope,

    • –Two or more forms of the same
    • element that have the same number of protons and electrons but a different
    • number of neutrons

    • –Same atomic number, Different
    • atomic mass

    •Same number of protons

    •Different number of neutrons

    –Radioactive isotopes

    • •Emit electromagnetic radiation as
    • they decay to a more stable state

    • •Used extensively in diagnostic
    • imaging

    • –Iodine-131 is use to
    • treat the thyroid cancer and hyperthyroidism (over-active thyroid).
  5. Chemical Bonds
    • •Ionic Bonds
    • (electrovalent bond)

    • –Formed
    • when one atom loses an electron and another atom accepts that electron

    • –Strong
    • electrostatic force that binds positively and negatively charged ions together

    • •Cations
    • (positively charged ions)

    • •Anions
    • (negatively charged ions)

    •Eg,

    • Na+
    • + Cl- à NaCl


    • –There
    • are a number of physiologically important ions that we will cover in subsequent
    • sections

    •Ca++, Na+, K+, OH-, HCO3-

    •Covalent Bonds

    • –Characterized
    • by the sharing one or more pairs of electrons

    • –The
    • resultant combination is called a molecule

    • –Non-polar
    • covalent bond

    • •When
    • electrons are shared equally between atoms

    • –Eg.
    • Hydrogen bond H-H

    • –Polar
    • covalent bond

    • •When the
    • nucleus of one atom attracts the electrons more strongly than the other nucleus

    • –Eg. Water
    • (H20)
  6. Hydrogen Bonds
    • •Results from unequal
    • charge distribution on molecules

    • •Weaker then ionic and
    • covalent bonds
  7. Metabolism
    • •All the chemical
    • reactions that occur in the body

    •Catabolism

    • –Breaks
    • down complex molecules into simpler forms and release energy

    •Anabolism

    • –Simple
    • molecules are joined into more complex one.
  8. Inorganic Molecules
    • •Usually lack carbon
    • atoms

    • •Dissociate in solution
    • to form ions

    • •Positively
    • charged ions – cations


    • •Negatively
    • charged ions - anions

    –Water

    •The body’s most abundant compound

    • –Oxygen
    • and Carbon Dioxide

    • •Oxygen
    • is necessary for the release of energy in the body

    • •Carbon
    • dioxide-waste product; helps maintain the acid-base balance in the body

    –Electrolytes

    • •Includes
    • acids, bases and salts
  9. Acids?
    Bases?
    Salts?
    • –Substancethat releases hydrogen ions (H+)
    • •Protondonor

    • –Electrolytethat dissociate to yield hydroxide ions (OH)
    • •Protonacceptor

    Compoundsthat results from chemical interaction of acid and base
  10. Organic Molecules
    • •Describe compounds that
    • contain C-C or C-H bonds

    –Carbohydrates

    –Proteins

    –Lipids

    • –Nucleic
    • Acid and Related Molecules
  11. Carbohydrates
    •The best energy source for the human body

    • •Composed of carbon, hydrogen, and
    • oxygen in a ratio 1:2:1

    •Monosaccharide's

    • –Simple sugars with short carbon
    • chain

    –E.g. glucose or fructose

    •Disaccharides and polysaccharides

    –E.g. Glycogen
  12. Proteins
    • •Most abundant organic
    • compounds

    • •Consist of carbon,
    • hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen

    •Composed of amino acids

    • –Essential
    • amino acids

    • •Cannot
    • be produced by human body

    • –Nonessential
    • amino acids

    • •Produced
    • from molecules available in the human body
  13. Four levels of protein organization
    • –Primary-refers
    • to the number, kind and sequence of amino acids that form a polypeptide chain

    • –Secondary-polypeptide
    • chain that is twisted and folded; structure stabilized by hydrogen bonds

    • –Tertiary-
    • three dimensional shape of polypeptide chain

    • –Quaternary-
    • cluster of more than one polypeptide chain
  14. Structural Proteins
    • –Provide a structural framework
    • •Eg. Collagen, Keratin
  15. Functional Proteins
    –Enzymes

    •Class of functional proteins

    • •Serve as catalysts for
    • biochemical reactions

    • –Facilitate reactions, but are not
    • changed by the reaction

    • –Act to speed up the rate at which
    • metabolic reactions occur.
  16. Lipids
    •Water insoluble organic molecules

    •Composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen

    •Often contain nitrogen and phosphorus

    •Functional Roles:

    –Energy

    • •Fats can be broken down for
    • energy

    –Structure

    •Integral part of cell membranes

    –Protection and insulation

    –Vitamins

    • •Vitamin A- necessary for night
    • vision

    • •Vitamin D- increases calcium
    • uptake

    • •Vitamin K- required for the
    • synthesis of blood clothing proteins
  17. Triglycerides or Fats
    –Most abundant lipids

    • –Composed of three molecules of
    • the six-carbon fatty acid attached to a glycerol molecule.

    • –Vary in the number of hydrogen
    • atoms

    –Saturated fatty acids

    • •All available bonds of its
    • hydrocarbon chain are filled

    –Unsaturated fatty acids
  18. Phospholipids
    • –Important
    • components of cell membranes

    • –Phosphate
    • containing region

    •Polar

    • •Hydrophilic
    • (attracted to water)

    • –Fatty
    • acid chains

    •Non-polar

    • •Hydrophobic
    • (repels water)
  19. Steroids
    •Composed of four rings of carbon atoms

    •Cholesterol

    • –Important component of membrane
    • that surround every cell in the body

    • –High levels in body increase risk
    • of heart disease

    • •Other molecules are synthesized from
    • cholesterol

    •Reproductive hormones

    • –Estrogen, progesterone and
    • testosterone

    • •Bile salts: increase fat
    • absorption
  20. Nucleic Acid and Related Molecules
    • •Deoxyribonucleic Acid
    • (DNA)

    • –Exists
    • in the nucleus

    • –Double
    • stranded molecule

    • –Has four
    • bases

    • •Adenosine
    • (A)

    • •Thymine
    • (T)

    • •Guanine
    • (G)

    • •Cytosine
    • (C)

    • –Contains
    • the hereditary information of the cell
  21. Nucleic Acid and Related Molecules
    •Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)

    –Messenger molecule

    • –Usually a single stranded
    • molecules

    • •There is no thymine in RNA,
    • instead of thymine uracil is used

    –Formed within the nucleus

    • –Makes a perfect impression of DNA
    • (transcription), leaves the nucleus (through the nuclear pores) and serves as a
    • template for protein synthesis (translation).
  22. Transcription
    • –Synthesis
    • of mRNA (messenger RNA)

    • –Double
    • strands of a DNA segment separate and RNA nucleotides pair with DNA nucleotides

    • –Pairing
    • ensures accurate genetic coding

    • –mRNA
    • contains information required to determine the sequence of amino acids in a
    • protein structure
  23. Translation
    • –Synthesis
    • of protein at the ribosome in response to the genetic code (codons) of
    • mRNA

    • –Requires
    • tRNA and ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

    • •Produced
    • in the nucleus

    • –Ribosomes align codons of mRNA
    • with the anticodons of tRNA and the
    • join amino acids

    • –As amino
    • acids are jointed together a chain is formed.
  24. Nucleotides - Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
    • –Composed
    • of adenine (a nitrogen containing molecule) bonded to a ribose sugar with three
    • phosphate attached

    • –High
    • energy bonds are present between phosphate groups

    • –Used to
    • do the body’s work during catabolic reactions
  25. NAD and FAD
    • –Used as
    • co-enzymes

    • –Transfer
    • energy containing molecules from one pathway to the other
  26. Cyclic AMP (cAMP)
    –Intracellular signaling molecule

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