Mrt 255

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Mrt 255
2012-01-16 22:52:16

Common Fractures
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  1. Green stick
    • Incomplete fracture that occurs in children under 12 due to softness of their cancellous bone
    • One side breaks and the other side bends
  2. Blow out
    Fracture of the floor of the orbit caused by an increase in intraobital pressure due to traumatic blow
  3. Contrecoup
    • Injury to a part opposite the site of the primary injury
    • Most common is brain injury
    • Eye and lung can occur with Shaken Baby Syndrome
  4. Colles
    • Transverse fracture of the distal radius with posterior (backwards) displacement of the distal fragment
    • results from a fall onto an out stretched hand
    • An avulsion fracture of the ulnar styloid process also occurs in more than half of all Colles fractures
  5. Boxer's
    Fracture of the 5th and possible the 4th metacarpal by a blow to or with the radius at the elbow
  6. Bimalleolar
    Fracture involving both the medial malleolus of the tibia the lateral malleolus of the fibula
  7. Trimalleolar
    Fracture involving the posterior lip of the tibia in addition to the medial and lateral malleoli of the tibia and fibula
  8. Salter-Haris
    Five variations or classifications of fractures involving a growth plate of a pediatric bone. Rate of growth can be affected
  9. Healing process
    Rate of healing varies with age, diet, immobilization of area
  10. Complications of the healing process
    • Infection : ostemyelitis
    • Injuries to surrounding organs-pneumothorax resulting from a fractured rib
    • Ossification of surrounding musle
    • Fat embolism ( may lead to death ei fracture femur ) fat from the bone marrow may enter the circulation
    • Fat embolism may lodge in the lungs or brain
    • Non- Union healing fragments do not unite
    • Delayed union -delay in progress of bone healing
  11. Healing process
    Common projections
    • AP and a lateral
    • If patient can not move due to fracture 2 pictures at 90 angles may be needed
  12. Dislocation
    • A bone is out of its joint with no contact with the articular surface of the other bone
    • Most common site for dislocation is the shoulder joint
    • Complications include compressed fracture of humeral head , fracture of glenoid rim
  13. Subluxation
    A patial dislocation often occurring with a fracture. Common site are acromioclavicular joints
  14. Osteomyelitis
    • Inflammation of the bone & bone marrow
    • Caused by infectious organism
    • begins as abscess of the bone
    • Pus produced, spreads down the medullary cavity and outward to the surface
    • Does not appear on radiographs until about 10 days after onset
    • Soft tissue infection may spread from a skin abscess or decubitus ulcer
  15. Osteoarthritis
    • Degenerative condition of articular cartilage of a joint with changes occuring in underlying bone and formation of small of bone spurs(osteophytes)
    • Age related
    • Can be caused by repeated trauma or stress to joints or disorder of metabolism
  16. Osteoarthritis
    Radiographich Apperence
    Narrowing of joint space caused by thinning of the articular cartilage and development of small bony spurs along the margins of the articular edges of the bones
  17. Rheumation Arthritis
    • Chronic systemic disease of unknown cause- women affected 3x more than men
    • Disfiguration of joints dure to subluxation and ankylosing
  18. Rheumatoid Arthritis
    Radiographic apperence Early stages
    • Bone demineralization and soft tissue swelling and laterstages
    • cartilage and bone destruction, subluxation and deformities
  19. Rheumatiod Arthritis
    Common views
    • AP or PA projections,oblique and lateral of affected areas
    • Posterior oblique of the hand is a common oblique (ball catchers)
  20. Ankylosing Spondylitis(Bamboo Spine) Rheumatiod varient
    • Disease generally affects sacroilic joints andn progresses upqard until the entire vertebrae column is affected
    • Ossification in tissues and ligaments of the spine as well as lateral bony bridges between vertebral bodies limit patient movement
    • Fractures in latter stages due to osteoporosis of vertebral bodies and patients restricted movement
  21. Ankylosing Spondylitis
    Common views
    • AP and lateral of affected vertebrae
    • AP and bilateral posterior obliques of sacroiliac joints