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Webster's Definition: One that computes; specifically
: a programmable, typically electronic device that can store, retrieve and process data.
- (from Unit 3)
- 1. An electronic device that receives input and produces output that is useful to people or devices, is made up of hardware and software and executes instructions found in software programs.
- 2. Understand only binary number system so:
- ----a. All input is translated into a binary value
- ----b. Output between computers is in binary format
- ----c. Output to a user is generally translated from a binary value to a code understood by user
Term originally applied to people. Then as mechanical and electronic computers were developed, the term no longer applied to people.
Evolution of Computer
35000 BC -- Tally Sticks (earliest tool man used to help with computations)
2400 BC -- Abacus invented by Babylonians and Counting Board invented by Sumerians (was used for counting before there were written numbers and used today by Asian shopkeepers)
150 BC -- First mechanical calculator (used gears to calculate position of sun and moon) Antikythera
Middle Ages -- Number systems developed
Mid 1400's thru Mid 1800's -- Mechanical computers with limited functionality. Performed simple arithmetic
1492 -- Leonardo DaVinci -- drawings for mechanical calculator
1613 -- Computer first used to describe person who performed calculations
1621 -- William Oughtred -- Used logarithims to invent the slide rule to muliply, divide, logarithims, roots and trigometric functions. Was in use until the early 1970's (John Napier discovered logarithims in 1614)
1642 -- Blaise Pascal -- Arithmetic machine using gears. Built to add sums of money. Output was achieved by observing position of gears
1680 -- Gottfried von Liebniz -- Invented the 'Step Reckoner' -- Output was achieved by observing final position of gears. Algorithims were embedded in hardware architecture. Could do simple arithmetic - addition, subtraction , multiplication, division and square roots. Also perfected binary number system
1822 -- Charles Babbage - conceived the 'Difference Engine' (only a working model was ever built) Intended to tabulate polynomials used to compute logarithmic and trigonometric functions
1833 - 1842 -- Charles Babbage - Worked on 'Analytical Engine' Improved calculating engine that would be programmable to do any kind of calculation using punch cards. Store for memory and Mill for central processor. Would have looped and used conditional branching. Never actually built it
1842 - 1843 -- Ada Lovelace -- Wrote first 'program' for Babbage's Analytical Engine. Called first computer programmer. Program would compute Bernoulli numbers.
1846 - 1849 -- Charles Babbage -- Began design on second 'Difference Engine' that was less complex but could calculate more quickly than the first. Never made an attempt to construct it.
1800's -- Electro-mechanical computers invented that could represent information through electronical impulses
1887 - Herman Hollerith -- Patented punch cards and invented the Tabulating Machine that would be used in the 1890 census. Punch cards used specifically designed layouts
1896 - Herman Hollerith -- started Tabulating Machine company which would be merged into CTR (Computing Tabulating Recording) which would become IBM
First Generation Computers (Relays and Vacuum Tubes)
First Generation computers were based on relays (1930 -- Differential Analyzer and 1937 Bell Labs Model K and 1944 Harvard Mark 1 developed by Howard Aiken with assistance from IBM and 1941 Konrad Zuse completed the Z3 which used Liebniz binary system) or vacuum tubes (ENIAC - Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer in 1946 and Colossus a 'German code' breaker in 1943)
1951 - UNIVAC -- First general purpose computer
Second Generation Computers (Transistors)
1947 -- Bell Labs invented the first transistors using Germanium. Silicone soon followed
1959 -- IBM 1401 -- All transistorized
Third Generation Computers
1958 -- Jack Kilby at TI and Robert Noyce (later founder of Intel) invented the integrated circuit
Large mainframes used integrated circuits to increase processing speeds.
Usually built between 1964 - 1972
Advent of minicomputers like IBM System/360, DEC PDP (Program Data Processor), DEC VAX (Virtual Address Extension) was an ISA, TI 990
1965 -- First super computer -- CDC 6600
Fourth Generation Computers
1971 -- Intel developed 4004 microprocessor originally intended for desktop calculators
1974 -- Intel released the 8080 microprocessor
Microcomputers weren't meant to replace mini-computers
1965 - -First supercomputer was CDC 6600
1976 -- Cray 1 invented by Seymour Cray Made vector processing practical to do operations in parallel
Supercomputers at the time used integrated circuits
First Computer Bug
1945 -- Bug literally in the computer at Naval Weapons Center at Dalhgren VA. Attributed to Admiral Grace Hopper who wrote first compiler and helped develop COBOL programming language. Women were first programmers
Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer
No internal memory -- needed to be physically programmed through switches and dials
Used enough power to light a small town.
90% of its downtime was spent replacing burned out vacuum tubes (approx 50/day)
Universal Automatic Computer
First commercially available for computer
Used for government and business
Built by Remington/Rand
First computer to come equipped with magnetic tape unit
First computer to use buffer memory
Earliest Use of Computers in Medicine
Early 1950's -- Robert Ledley began using computers for dental projects at the US National Bureau of Standards
1960 -- Ledley established the NBRF (National Biomedical Research Foundation) non-profit research organization dedicated to promoting the use of computers and electronic equipment in biomedical research
1965 -- MEDLARS (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System) A computerized biomedical, bibliographic retrieval system launched by the National Library of Medicine. First large scale, computer based, retrospective search service available to the public. Amounted to taking the Index Medicus and automating it.
1979 -- MEDLARS because available online and became known as MEDLINE
John Shaw Billings was director of the National Medical Library when Index Medicus was started. Also encouraged Hollerith to use his machines for the 1890 census
National Library of Medicine
1836 -- Started as library of surgeon general's office
Late 1960's -- Dr. Morris Collin began storing patient data at Kaiser-Permanente
1967 -- HELP (Health Evaluation through Logical Processing) started at LDS Hospital of Salt Lake City. Provides decision support such as an antibiotic consultant
1968 -- COSTAR was developed at Mass General. Still in use today and reminds physicians of clinical guidelines.
1970's -- Veteran's Administration VistA (first EMR to use a GUI)
1967 -- Promise project at the University of Vermont led by Lawrence L. Weed (Problem Oriented Medical Information System)
List Types of Computers
- 1. Personal Computers - Introduced in 1970s
- ----a. Desktops
- ----b. Laptops
- -------(1) Notebook
- -------(2) Netbook
- -------(3) Convertible
- ----c. Tablets - iPads & Android
- ----d. Smartphones
- 2. Large-Scale Computers - Introduced in 1940s+---Used by government & lrge corporations first they perform computations very quicklly on large amounts of data
- ----a. Mainframes
- ----b. Minicomputers
- ----c. Supercomputers
- ----d. Servers
- 3. Embedded - Began with calculators in 1960s/70sNow most electronic devices are computers. Provide specific functionality with very limited input and very specific output
- ----a. DVD Player
- ----b. MP3 Player
- ----c. Anti-lock Braking System on car
- ----d. MRI
- 1. Hardware - Physical machine
- 2. Software - Computer code that operates hardware
- 3. Networking & Databases - are combinations of both
Computer Hardware Components Include:
- 1. Motherboard
- 2. CPU(s) - AKA Core(s)
- 3. Case
- 4. Memory
- ----a. ROM - permanent
- ----b. RAM - volitile - AKA Primary Storage
- 5. Secondary Storage - AKA 'Off-chip" or
- ----Hard Drive(s)
- 6. Removable Storage
- 7. Peripherals:
- ----a. Input Devices
- ----b. Output Devices
- 8. Connectors & Ports
Peripheral Devices (Computer Hardware)
- 1. Hardware that is not part of the computer case or installed inside the computer.
- 2. Usually connect to the computer via ports but can connect wirelessly .
- 3. Communicate by sending an receiving signal that are translated to binary values
Input Devices (Computer Hardware)
- 1. Input devices provide data and control setting to a computer.
- 2. Used to enter information into the computer to be processed so the appropriate action can be taken.
- Touch Screen
- Camera Stylus
Medical Input Devices
- 1. CT Scan - (Computerized (Axial) Tomography)
- ----a. diagnostic tool - Input Device
- ----b. specialized x-ray equipment - supplements x-ray & ultrasound
- ----c. obtains 3-D images of the interior of the body by manipulating 2-D x-rays taken on a single axis of rotation
- ----d. traditionally were transverse/axial now can reformat to various planes
- 2. PET Scan - (Positron Emmission Tomography)----a. diagnostic & therapeutic measurement tool - Input Device
- ----b. nuclear medicine imaging technique using gamma ray marker to produce metabolic information
- ----c. produces 3-D image of FUNCTIONAL processes in the body
- ----d. Used increasingly frequently in combination (co-registration) with CT Scan or MRI to produce both anatomical and metabolic information
- 3. Ultrasonography/Sonography
- ----a. diagnostic & therapeutic tool - soft tissue image
- ----b. sound waves bounced off body, received as input from sonographic probe
- ----c. provides output when translates into pixels to produce a 3-D image
- 4. MRI - ( Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
- ----a. Diagnostic Tool - Input Device
- ----b. patient placed in powerful magnetic field & flooded with a radio frequency pulse
- ----c. produces a detailed image of the body's interior structure with good contrast between soft tissues by using nuclear magnetic resonance of cell nucleii
- 5. ECG or EKG - (Electrocrdiography)
- ----a. Diagnostic Tool - Output Device
- ----b. noninvasive interpretative recording of electrical activity of heart over time captured and externally recorded by electrodes placed on the patient's skin
- 6. Voice Synthesizer - Produces sound based on text input
Output Devices (Computer Hardware)
- 1. Anything that displays or provides information resulting from some computer action.
- 2. Communicate work done by the computer to the wolrd outside the computer.
- 3. Include:
- ----Fax machine
- ----Speaker/Sound Output
Motherboard (Computer Hardware)
- 1. Is Central Printed Circuit Board which holds ALL PARTS of the computer and provides connector to peripherals.
- 2. It is made up of circuity, chips and thousands of thin copper wires called buses
- 3. It contains the:
- ----Processor(s) - CPU(s)
- ----Memory - ROM & RAM
- -------Expansion Slots/Ports - connect computer to computer and/or computer to peripherals
- -------Buses - connect motherboard devices for communication
Processor (Computer Hardware)
- 1. AKA the Central Processing Unit (CPU) or "Core"
- 2. Many modern computers have multiple processors so can execute multiple instructions concurrently & increase speed
- 3. Performs all calculations and operations - the "brain"
- 4. Executes all instructions in a program
- 5. Has its own memory which serves as a "work area"
- 6. Processing speed measured in Hz (hertz) current speeds are in GHz (billions of machine cycles per second)
2 Types of Memory (Computer Hardware)
- 1. ROM - (Read Only Memory) Permanent. Very small. Holds just enough information to start the computer. There even when commputer is turned off.
- 2. RAM - (Random Access Memory) Volitile. Primary Storage. Only active when coputer is on and running.
- ----a. Can have multiple levels - the fastest is the cache which is small and close to the CPU.
- ----b. More RAM can speed up computer because it gives program more spce to run.
- ----c. It holds program as they run, but they are stored permanently in Secondard Memory (the Hard Drive).
Secondary Storage (Computer Hardware)
- 1. Hard Drive - Internal or External
- 2. Permanent, "off-chip" storage
- 3. Loading something from the hard drive is much slower than accessing something from memory (RAM)
- 4. System will try to manage resources so that it minimizes the number of times programs need to load or switch between memory and the hard drive
Removable Storage (Computer Hardware)
- 1. Removable storage allows use to store data as a backup or way to archive.
- 2. Also provides a way to transfer data/files from one computer to another.
- 3. Includes:
- ----a. Floppy Drives
- ----b. Optical Disks
- ----c. USB Flash Drive
- ----d. Memory Sticks
- ----e. Tape Drives/Magnetic Tapes
- ----f. Paper Data Storage - Tape and Punch Cards
Expansion Ports & Cards (Computer Hardware)
- Interfaces between (ways to connect) peripheral devices to a computer.
- Expansion Cards that plug into the motherboard:
- ----1. PCI (peripheral component interface) slots hold expansion cards
- ----2. PCI standards and architecture provide functionality:
- -------a. Standards needed to interoperability between hardware
- ---------made by various vendors
- -------b. PCIe (PCI express) replaces PCI-x & AGP
- ----1. The PC USB (Universal Serial Bus) & MAC Firewire are very fast
- ----2. Other ports include:
- -------a. Video
- -------b. Audio
- -------c. Ethernet*
- -------d. Modem*
- -------* = for networking
Motherboard Buses (Computer Hardware)
- 1. Copper wires on motherboard connecting motherboard devices for communication.
- 2. 3 Main Buses:
- ----a. Address - physical destination addx on hard drive
- ----b. Control - timing & specific commands
- ----c. Data - actual data to be acted upon is placed here
Computer Software Component - Operating System
- 1. Coordinates hardware and applicatoin software
- 2. Computers cannot run with an OS
- 3. Allows ussers to interact with the computer
- 4. Manages tasks in CPU, memory, storage, peripherals, applications, etc.
- 5. Examples include:
- ----a. Use GUIs
- -------(1) Microsoft Windows
- -------(2) Mac OS
- -------(3) Linux KDE4 & Ubuntu & RedHat
- ----b. Use Direct Typed Commands:
- -------(1) DOS
- -------(2) Unix
- -------(3) Linux
Computer Software Component - Applications
- 1. Get specific tasks accomplished on the computer.
- 2. Examples include:
- ----a. Word Processors
- ----b. Spreadsheets
- ----c. Internet Browsers
- ----d. Video Games
- ----e. EMRs
Computer Components - Combination of Hardware & Software
- 1. Network - allows computer to connect to others and the Internet
- ---- Hardware: Network ports, cables, routers & hub
- ---- Software: OS & NOS (network operating system)2. Database -
- ---- a. A collection of data that is easily stored and retrieved (fast than flat file or spreadsheet)
- ---- b. Often part of large applications - may connect to one online
- ----c. Require a server
- ---- Hardware: Server (computer and storage)
- ---- Software: DBMS (database management system)
Define Internet & Define World Wide Web
INTERNET: Per Wikipedia: "The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standrd internet protocol suite, TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) i.e., a large network made up of many small networks.
Hardware includes: cabling, routers, switches, servers and host computers.
Computers connect to the Internet via an ISP (Internet Service Provider)
Originated in 1969 as ARPANET - (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network) - 4 US iniversities linked to share information in event of nuclear disaster.
WORLD WIDE WEB: WWW is, according to Wikipedia, " one of the servies that runs on the Internet. It is a collection of interconnected documents and other resources linked by hyperlinks and URLs."
URL = Uniform Resource Locator
Who Invented the Web?
What was the 1st Web server?
- 1. by British scientist Tim Berners-Lee
- 2. in 1989
- 3. by introducing a Web browser and Web page coding
- 4. He used a NeXT computer
- 1. A code translator
- 2. The Browser uses HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) to communicate with Web servers to get the Web page content
- 3. There are other protocols (such as FTP - File Transfer Protocol) that also travel on the Internet
- 4. The Web server send HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) text files back to the browser
- 5. The Browser translates the HTML for display on the monitor.
Who Owns the Internet and t Web?
No one owns them but people and governments DO own devices that connect to the Internet and form the WWW.
Think of the Chinese government.
What are Internet Protocols?
- Internet Protocols are global standards to ensure interoperability between hardware and software:
- 1. HTTP - (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)
- 2. TCP/IP - (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)
- 3. IP address & subnet mask (Internet Protocol):--------a. Dynamic
- ----b. Static
What is DNS?
Why is it used?
DNS is a Domain Naming System, is how URLs and IP addresses are linked together.
- Domain Names were created to make it easier for people to remember and use than IP address strings.
- Domain Name Resolution is the process of looking up and translating a domain name to IP address by going to a DNS server.
Global DNS servers are called ''root servers' and work together to map the globe's names to their IP addresses
When the browser learns the destination site's IP addx, communication begins.
What IS a Domain Name?
Can be purchased from ICANN (Internet Corporation of Assigned Names and Numbers)
- It is made up of 3 parts:
- ----a. "www" indicates it is found on the WWW
- ----b. the site name is the purchased 'name'
- ----c. the .xxx extension MAY indicate the type of site: .gov, .org, etc.