Neuro Ch 2 Vocab

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Hatsumi743
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Neuro Ch 2 Vocab
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2012-01-17 01:56:11
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Neuro Neurosci Neuroscience 106
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Neuroscience 106 Ch 2 Vocab
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  1. Neuron
    Brain cells that sense changes in the env't, communicate changes to other neurons, and command the body's responses to these sensations
  2. Glial Cell
    Insulate, support, and nourish neighboring neurons
  3. Histology
    The microscopic study of the structure of tissues
  4. Nissl Stain
    Distinguishes neurons and glia from one another, and enables histologists to study the cytoarchitecture of neurons in different parts of the brain
  5. Cytoarchitecture
    The arrangement of neurons
  6. Golgi Stain
    A silver chromate stain that allows a small percentage of neurons to become completely darkly colored
  7. Cell Body
    Swollen region of the neuron that contain the cell nucleus (aka: soma or perikaryon)
  8. Neurite
    Thin tubes that radiate away from the soma (axon and dendrites)
  9. Axon
    Carry the output of the neurons over long distances. Usually 1 per soma with 90º branches.
  10. Dendrite
    "Antennae" of the neuron to receive incoming signals (input). Come in contact w/ many axons and taper to a fine point.
  11. Neuron Doctrine
    The idea that neurites of different neurons are not continuous with each another and must communicate by contact, not continuity and that neurons abide by cell theory
  12. Cytosol
    The watery fluid inside the cell
  13. Cytoplasm
    The collection of all the organelles (but not the nucleus)
  14. Chromosome
    contain genetic material within the nucleus
  15. Gene
    Segments of DNA that distinguish different kinds of cells
  16. Gene Expression
    The "reading" of DNA that produces synthesis of proteins
  17. Protein
    Give neurons their unique characteristics
  18. Protein Synthesis
    The assembly of protein molecules (occurs in cytoplasm)
  19. mRNA
    Carries genetic messages to the sites of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm
  20. Transcription
    Process of assembling a piece of mRNA that contains the information of a gene
  21. Promoter
    Region where the RNA synthesizing enzyme, RNA polymerase, binds to initiation transcription
  22. Transcription Factor
    Tightly regulates the binding of the polymerase to the promoter
  23. RNA Splicing
    Removes the introns and fuses the remaining exons together
  24. Amino Acid
    Building blocks of proteins
  25. Translation
    Assembling proteins from amino acids under the direction of mRNA
  26. Ribosome
    Dense globular structures that assemble new proteins from amino acids according to the instructions carried by mRNA
  27. Rough ER
    Membrane enclosed with ribosomes attached to its outer surface that synthesizes proteins destined to be inserted into membrane or to be enclosed by membrane
  28. Polyribosome
    Collection of seveal ribosomes floating freely in the cytoplasm
  29. Smooth ER
    Membrane enclosed that is heterogeneous and performs different function in different locations
  30. Golgi Apparatus
    Sorts and chemically modifies proteins that are destined for delivery to different parts of the cell
  31. Mitochondrion
    Responsible for cellular respiration and generates ATP
  32. ATP
    Cell's energy source and is converted back into ADP in the mitochondria
  33. Neuronal Membrane
    Barrier that separates the inside of a nerve cell from the outside
  34. Microtubule
    Straight hollow tubes that are part of the cytoskeleton, play an important role in axoplasmic transport, and are made out of tubulin
  35. Microfilament
    Forms braided strands, are a part of the cytoskeleton and are made out of actin
  36. Neurofilament
    A type of intermediate filament that's important for the neuronal cytoskeleton
  37. Axon Hillock
    Swelling of the axon where it joins the soma
  38. Axon Collateral
    A branch of an axon
  39. Axon Terminal
    The end region of an axon, usually a site of synaptic contact w/ another cell (aka terminal bouton and presynaptic terminal)
  40. Synapse
    the region of contact where a neuron transfers information to another cell
  41. Terminal Arbor
    Branches at the end of an axon terminating in the same region of the nervous system
  42. Innervation
    The provision of synaptic input to a cell or collection of cells
  43. Synaptic Vesicle
    Membrane-enclosed structure that contains neurotransmitters and found at a site of synaptic contact
  44. Synaptic Cleft
    Region separating the presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes of neurons
  45. Synaptic Transmission
    Process of transferring information from one cell to another at a synapse
  46. Neurotransmitter
    Chemical released by a presynaptic element upon stimulation that activates postsynaptic receptors
  47. Axoplasmic Transport
    The process of transporting materials down an axon
  48. Anterograde Transport
    Axoplasmic transport from a neuron's soma to the axon terminal
  49. Dendritic Tree
    All dendrites of a single neuron
  50. Receptor
    Specialized protein that detercts chemical signals, such as neurotransmitters, and initiates a cellular response
  51. Unipolar Neuron
    Neuron that has a single neurite
  52. Bipolar Neuron
    Neuron that have 2 neurites
  53. Multipolar Neuron
    Neuron that have 3+ neurites
  54. Stellate Cell
    Star shaped neurons
  55. Pyramidal Cell
    Pyramid shaped neurons
  56. Spiny Neuron
    Neurons that have dendrites with spines
  57. Aspinous Neuron
    Neurons that do not have spiny dendrites
  58. Primary Sensory Neuron
    Neuron specialized to detect env'tal signals at the body's sensory surfaces
  59. Motor Neuron
    Neuron that synapses on a muscle cell and causes muscle contraction
  60. Interneuron
    A CNS neuron whose axon does not leave the structure in which it resides (not a primary or motor neuron)
  61. Astrocyte
    A glial cell in the brain that supports neurons and regulates the extracellular ionic and chemical env't
  62. Oligodendroglial Cell
    A glial cell that provides myelin in the CNS
  63. Schwann Cell
    Glial cell that provides myelin in the peripheral nervous system
  64. Myelin
    Membranous sheath around axons provided by oligodendroglia in the CNS and schwann cells in the PNS
  65. Node of Ranvier
    Space b/n 2 consecutive myelin sheaths where an axon comes in contact w/ the extracellular fluid
  66. Ependymal Cell
    Glial cell that provides the lining of the brain's ventricular system
  67. Microglial Cell
    Cell that functions as a phagocyte in the nervous system to remove debris left by dead or dying neurons and glia

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