AnP Chapter 8 Muscular System

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AnP Chapter 8 Muscular System
2012-01-19 07:19:51
Muscular System

Muscular System Notes
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  1. What are the 3 types of muscle tissue in the body?
    • cardiac
    • skeletal (striated, voluntary)
    • smooth (visceral, involuntary)
  2. Skeletal muscle
    • aka "voluntary", "striated"
    • contractions are voluntarily controlled
    • 40 - 50% of body weight
    • threadlike and cylindrical; appear in bundles
    • composed of striated muscle cells and connective tissue
  3. Cardiac muscle
    • composes the bulk of the heartintercalated disks cause the heart to contract as one uint
    • muscle cells branch frequently
  4. Smooth muscle
    • aka "nonstriated", "involuntary", "visceral"
    • no cross stripes or striations
    • tapered at each end
  5. Parts of the skeletal muscle
    • origin: attaches to the stationary bone of a joint
    • insertion: attaches to the movable bone of a joint
    • body: main part of the muscle

    i.e. the top of the bicep is the origin; the bottom is the insertion
  6. Tendons
    • fibrous connective tissue that anchors muscles to bones
    • some are enclosed in synovial lined tubes called tendon sheaths
    • lubricated by synovial fluid
  7. Bursae
    • small synovial lined sacs containing synovial fluid
    • a slippery cushion
    • found between tendons and the bones beneath them
  8. Muscle fiber
    • made of thick and thin myofilaments
    • thick myofilaments: myosin
    • thin myofilaments: actin
    • when muscles contract, actin and myosin connect to form cross bridges
  9. sarcomere
    • basic contractile (functional) unit of skeletal muscle
    • seperated from each other by dark bands called z lines
    • made of mulitiple actin and myosin filaments
    • when muscles contract, actin and myosin come together and shorten the sarcomere and thus the entire muscle
  10. sliding filament model