Chapter 3

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Author:
dphill20
ID:
128424
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Chapter 3
Updated:
2012-01-25 13:33:06
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Prefixes Numbers or Quantity Position Direction Miscellaneous Combining Forms Colors Related Suffixes
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Medical Terminology
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  1. Prefixes: Numbers or Quantity

    mono-, uni-
    one

    *A monorail is a single rail that serves as a track for a wheeled vehicle. A monocular scope has one eyepiece. A unicorn has one horn, and a unicycle has one wheel.
  2. Prefixes: Numbers or Quantity

    bi-, di-
    two

    A bicycle has two wheels. Carbon dioxide contains two atoms of oxygen.
  3. Prefixes: Numbers or Quantity

    tri-
    three

    *A tricycle has three wheels.
  4. Prefixes: Numbers or Quantity

    quad-, quadri-, tetra-
    four

    *Quadruplets are four offspring born at one birth. Quadriplegia is paralysis of all four extremities. A tetrahedron is a solid figure having four faces.
  5. Prefixes: Numbers or Quantity

    centi-
    one hundred, one-hundredth

    *Centigrade is a measurement of temperature that is divided into one hundred degrees, with 0 degrees representing the freezing point and 100 degrees representing the boiling point. A centimeter is one-hundredth of a meter.
  6. Prefixes: Numbers or Quantity

    milli-
    one-thousandth

    *A millimeter is one-thousandth of a meter.
  7. Prefixes: Numbers or Quantity

    diplo-
    double

    *Diplopia means double vision.
  8. Prefixes: Numbers or Quantity

    hemi-, semi-
    half, partly

    *Each of the Earth's hemispheres is half of the Earth. A semipermeable membrane is one that allows the passage of some substances but prevents the passage of others.
  9. Prefixes: Numbers or Quantity

    hyper-
    excessive, more than normal

    *Hyperactive means excessively active. Hyperglycemia means an above-normal amount of sugar in the blood.
  10. Prefixes: Numbers or Quantity

    hypo-
    under, less than normal

    *Hypodermic means under or beneath the skin. Hypoglycemia is a condition characterized by a below-normal amount of sugar in the blood.
  11. Prefixes: Numbers or Quantity

    multi-, poly-
    many

    *A multitude means many or several. Multipurpose means serving many purposes. Polyunsaturated fats have many unsaturated chemical bonds. Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates generally composed of many molecules of simple sugars.
  12. Prefixes: Numbers or Quantity

    nulli-
    none

    *The word null means having no value, amounting to nothing, or equal to zero.
  13. Prefixes: Numbers or Quantity

    pan-
    all

    *Pandemic means occurring throughout (i.e., affecting all) the population of a country, people, or the world.
  14. Prefixes: Numbers or Quantity

    primi-
    first

    *Primary means standing first in rank or importance.
  15. Prefixes: Numbers or Quantity

    super-, ultra-
    excessive

    *Supervitaminosis is a condition resulting from excessive ingestion (swallowing or taking by mouth) of vitamins. Ultraviolet (UV) describes light beyond the visible spectrum at its violet end. UV rays cause sunburn and skin tanning but are also used in the diagnosis and tratment of disease.
  16. Prefixes: Position or Direction

    ab-
    away from

    *Abduct means to carry away by force or draw away from a given postion.
  17. Prefixes: Position or Direction

    ad-
    toward

    *In drug addiction, one is "drawn toward" a habit-forming drug. In other words, one has a compulsive physiologic need for a certain drug.
  18. Prefixes: Position or Direction

    ante-, pre-
    before in time or in place

    *An anteroom is an outer room that is generally entered before a more important room. Prerenal pertains to the area in front of (literally, "before in place") the kidney.
  19. Prefixes: Position or Direction

    circum-, peri-
    around

    *The perimeter is the outer boundary or the line that is drawn around the outside of an area. The circumference is the line that is drawn around a circle.
  20. Prefixes: Position or Direction

    dia-
    through

    *The diameter passes through the center of a circle.
  21. Prefixes: Position or Direction

    ecto-, ex-, exo-, extra-
    out, without, away from

    *To export is to carry or send away to another place. The skeletons of some animals, such as insects, are on the outer surface and are called exoskeletons. Extranuclear means outside a nucleus.
  22. Prefixes: Position or Direction

    en-, end-, endo-
    inside

    *Enclose means to close up inside something, hold in, or include. Endotracheal means within the trachea.
  23. Prefixes: Position or Direction

    epi-
    above, on

    *An epitaph is often inscribed on the tombstone or above the grave of the person buried there.
  24. Prefixes: Position or Direction

    hypo-, infra-, sub-
    beneath, under

    *Hypodermic means pertaining to the area below the skin. A subcutaneous injection places a small amount of medication below the skin layer into the subcutaneous tissue.
  25. Prefixes: Position or Direction

    inter-
    between

    *An interval is a space of time between events.
  26. Prefixes: Position or Direction

    intra-
    within

    *Intracollegiate activities are those within a college or engaged in by members of a college.
  27. Prefixes: Position or Direction

    meso-, mid-
    middle

    *The mesoderm is the middle of three tissue layers that form during the development of an embryo.
  28. Prefixes: Position or Direction

    para-
    near, beside, or abnormal

    *Two parallel lines run beside each other.
  29. Prefixes: Position or Direction

    per-
    through or by

    *To perspire is to excrete fluid through the pores of the skin.
  30. Prefixes: Position or Direction

    post-
    after, behind

    *To postdate is to assign a date to something after the date it actually occurred, such as when one postdates a check. Postnasal means lying or occurring behind the nose.
  31. Prefixes: Position or Direction

    retro-
    behind, backward

    *Retroactive means extending back to a prior time or condition. Retrospection means looking backward in time or surveying the past.
  32. Prefixes: Position or Direction

    super-, supra-
    above, beyond

    *Supernormal is beyond normal human powers. A suprarenal gland is situated above each kidney.
  33. Prefixes: Position or Direction

    sym-, syn-
    joined, together

    *A syndrome is a set of symptoms that occur together and collectively characterize a particular disease or condition. In symbiosis, two organisms of different species beneficially live together (coexist).
  34. Prefixes: Position or Direction

    trans-
    across

    *A transdermal drug is one that can be absorbed through (or across) unbroken skin, such as the nitroglycerin patch to relieve angina pectoris, chest pain caused by heart disease.
  35. Miscellaneous Prefixes

    ante-, pre-, pro-
    before

    *Antepartum means before childbirth. Premarital means existing or occurring before marriage. Proactive involves taking action before an anticipated event.
  36. Miscellaneous Prefixes

    post-
    after or behind

    *Postpartum means after childbirth.
  37. Miscellaneous Prefixes

    macro-, mega-, megalo-
    large or great

    *Macroscopic structures are large enough to be seen by the naked eye. A megalith is a very large stone. Megalomania is an abnormal mental state characterized by delusions of greatness.
  38. Miscellaneous Prefixes

    micro-
    small

    *A microscope is used to view very small objects.
  39. Miscellaneous Prefixes

    a-, an-
    no, not, without

    Rule: Use a- before a consonant. Usa an- before a vowel and often the letter h.

    *Asymptomatic means without symptoms. Anesthesia means without feeling.
  40. Miscellaneous Prefixes

    in-
    not or inside (in)

    *Inconsistent means not consistent. Inhale means "to breathe in".
  41. Miscellaneous Prefixes

    anti-, contra-
    against

    *An antiperspirant acts against perspiration. A contraceptive acts against or prevents conception. (The i in anti- is sometimes dropped before a vowel.)
  42. Miscellaneous Prefixes

    brady-
    slow

    *Bradycardia means a decreased pulse rate, but its literal translation is "a slow heart condition".
  43. Miscellaneous Prefixes

    dys-
    bad, difficult

    *Reading is very difficult when one has dyslexia. This disorder is thought to be an inability to organize written symbols.
  44. Miscellaneous Prefixes

    eu-
    good, normal

    *Euthanasia is "mercy killing", thought by some to be a good, painless death when a person has a terminal, intolerably painful condition.
  45. Miscellaneous Prefixes

    mal-
    bad

    *Maladjusted means poorly or badly adjusted.
  46. Miscellaneous Prefixes

    pro-
    favoring, supporting

    *To prolong is to make something longer; in other words, to support making it longer.
  47. Miscellaneous Prefixes

    tachy-
    fast

    *Tachycardia means an increased pulse rate, but its literal translation is "a fast heart condition".
  48. Combining Forms for Colors

    alb/o, albin/o, leuk/o (leuc/o)
    white

    *An albino is an individual with congenital absence of pigment in the skin, hair, and eyes. The skin and hair appear white because of lack of pigment. The Latin term alba means white. Leukemia is a malignant disease of the blood-forming organs characterized by a marked increase in the number of leukocytes (white blood cells). There are also immature leukocytes.
  49. Combining Forms for Colors

    chlor/o
    green

    *Chlorophyll is the green pigment contained in chloroplasts in the leaves of plants and is the reason that plants are green.
  50. Combining Forms for Colors

    cyan/o
    blue

    *Deficiency of oxygen in the blood can cause a condition called cyanosis, a slightly bluish, slatelike skin discoloration.
  51. Combining Forms for Colors

    erythr/o
    red

    *Erythrocytes are red blood cells.
  52. Combining Forms for Colors

    melan/o
    black

    *A melancholy person is sad. In ancient times, people thought the bodies of melancholy persons produced a black bile that caused sadness. A melanoma is a malignant skin cancer.
  53. Combining Forms for Color

    xanth/o
    yellow

    *Xanthoplyll is a yellow pigment in plants. A condition called jaundice is often associated with a yellow appearance in the patient; however, it is derived from French and does not use xanth/o as a combining form. Jaundice is characterized by a yellowish discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and white outer part of the eyeballs.
  54. Select Combining Forms and Related Suffixes

    cyt/o

    -cyte
    cell
  55. Select Combining Forms and Related Suffixes

    gen/o

    -genic

    -genesis
    beginning origin (sometimes genes)

    produced by or in

    producing or forming
  56. Select Combining Forms and Related Suffixes

    gram/o

    -gram

    -graph

    -graphy
    to record

    a record

    instrument for recording

    process of recording
  57. Select Combining Forms and Related Suffixes

    kinesi/o

    -kinesia, -kinesis
    movement, motion
  58. Select Combining Forms and Related Suffixes

    leps/o

    -lepsy
    seizure
  59. Select Combining Forms and Related Suffixes

    lys/o

    -lysin

    -lysis

    -lytic
    destruction, dissolving

    that which destroys

    process of destroying

    capable of or producing destruction
  60. Select Combining Forms and Related Suffixes

    malac/o

    -malacia
    soft, softening

    abnormal softening
  61. Select Combining Forms and Related Suffixes

    megal/o

    -megaly
    large, enlarged

    enlargement
  62. Select Combining Forms and Related Suffixes

    metr/o

    -meter

    -metry
    measure, uterine tissue

    instrument used to measure

    process of measuring
  63. Select Combining Forms and Related Suffixes

    path/o

    -pathy
    disease
  64. Select Combining Forms and Related Suffixes

    phag/o

    -phagia

    -phagic

    -phagy
    eat, ingest

    eating, swallowing
  65. Select Combining Forms and Related Suffixes

    phas/o

    -phasia
    speech
  66. Select Combining Forms and Related Suffixes

    pleg/o

    -plegia
    paralysis
  67. Select Combining Forms and Related Suffixes

    schis/o, schiz/o, schist/o

    -schisis
    split, cleft
  68. Select Combining Forms and Related Suffixes

    scler/o

    -sclerosis
    hard

    hardening
  69. Select Combining Forms and Related Suffixes

    scop/o

    -scope

    -scopy
    to examine, to view

    instruement used for viewing

    process of examining visually
  70. Select Combining Forms and Related Suffixes

    troph/o

    -trophic,

    -trophy
    nutrition
  71. Miscellaneous Combining Forms

    aer/o
    air

    *Aeroplane is the British spelling of airplane.
  72. Miscellaneous Combining Forms

    blast/o
    embryonic form

    *The names of early (embryonic) forms have -blast endings. For example, embryonic bone cells are osteoblasts.
  73. Miscellaneous Combining Forms

    cancer/o, carcin/o
    cancer

    *A carcinoma is a cancerous tumor.
  74. Miscellaneous Combining Forms

    cephal/o
    head

    *Cephalic means pertaining to the head.
  75. Miscellaneous Combining Forms

    cry/o
    cold

    *Cryotherapy uses cold temperatures to treat certain conditions.
  76. Miscellaneous Combining Forms

    crypt/o
    hidden

    *A cryptic remark has a hidden meaning. A cryptogram is a message written in code, so it has a hidden meaning.
  77. Miscellaneous Combining Forms

    dips/o
    thirst

    *Polydipsia means excessive thirst.
  78. Miscellaneous Combining Forms

    electr/o
    electricity

    *Electr/o will be easy to remember because the combining form is contained in its meaning, electricity.
  79. Miscellaneous Combining Forms

    fibr/o
    fiber

    *Fibrous means containing, consisting of, or resembling fiber.
  80. Miscellaneous Combining Forms

    hist/o
    tissue

    *Histocompatibility is a measure of the compatibility of tissue of a donor and recipient.
  81. Miscellaneous Combining Forms

    myc/o
    fungus

    *Mycology is a branch of botany that deals with fungi (plural of fungus).
  82. Miscellaneous Combining Forms

    narc/o
    stupor

    *Narcotics are so named because they produce insensibility or stupor.
  83. Miscellaneous Combining Forms

    necr/o
    dead

    *Necrosis is a localized tissue death in response to disease or injury.
  84. Miscellaneous Combining Forms

    optic/o, opt/o
    vision

    *Optical pertains to vision. An optometrist tests the eyes to measure visual acuity and prescribes corrective lenses, if necessary.
  85. Miscellaneous Combining Forms

    pharmac/o
    drugs, medicine

    *Medicines are dispensed at a pharmacy.
  86. Miscellaneous Combining Forms

    phon/o
    voice

    *We hear someone's voice when we speak with that person by phone.
  87. Miscellaneous Combining Forms

    phot/o
    light

    *Photography produces images on a film by the action of radiant energy, especially light.
  88. Miscellaneous Combining Forms

    py/o
    pus

    *Pyogenic means "pus producing".
  89. Miscellaneous Combining Forms

    therm/o
    heat

    *Thermal clothing is designed to prevent loss of body heat.
  90. Miscellaneous Combining Forms

    top/o
    position, place

    *Topography is often concerned with the making of maps or charts to show relative positions and elevations of a particular place or region.
  91. Miscellaneous Combining Forms

    trache/o
    trachea (windpipe)

    *Endotracheal means within or through the trachea.

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