Science Terms and things to know

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Matt123
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128475
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Science Terms and things to know
Updated:
2012-01-17 17:39:27
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Science
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The science terms I need to know.
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  1. Mass
    A body of coherent matter.
  2. Volume
    the amount of space measured in cubic centimeters that an object occupies.
  3. Density
    the measure of the quantity of some physical property.
  4. Solubility
    the ability of a substance to dissolve.
  5. oxidization
    a chemical reaction in which an atom or ion loses electrons.
  6. combustion
    a chemical change producing heat and usually light
  7. elements
    a substance that can't be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means
  8. compounds
    a substance consisting of atoms of two or more different elements
  9. mixtures
    composition of two or more substances that aren't chemically combined and can be separated
  10. pure substances
    only contain one type of substance
  11. solids
    one of the 4 main states of matter in which the molecules vibrate but do not migrate to other positions.
  12. liquids
    one of 4 main states of matter in which the molecules can move around freely but are bound loosely by intermelecular forces
  13. gases
    one of 4 states of matter in which is composed of molecules in constant random motion
  14. plasma
    one of the 4 main states of matter similar to gas but consisting of positively charged ions with their detached electrons moving freely about
  15. freezing
    changing from a liquid state to a solid state by being cooled to a freezing point
  16. melting
    changing from a solid to a liquid by reaching the melting point
  17. evaporation
    the change of liquid into vapor at a temperature below the boiling point.
  18. condensation
    changing a gas or vapor into liquid by either cooling or by being subjected to increased pressure
  19. sublimation
    the process of a solid changing into a gas without going through the liquid phase
  20. halogens
    any group of 5 nonmetallic elements with similar properties
  21. noble gases
    any of the 6 gases helium,neon,argon,krypton,xenon, and randon
  22. reactivity
    readily partaking in chemical reactions
  23. radioactivity
    the emition of radiation by unstoppable atomic neclei undergoin radioactive decay
  24. rare earth metals
    • any of a series of 15 naturally occuring metallic elements.
    • (57-71)
  25. phyisical and chemical properties of matter
    physical property: a characteristic of a substance that does not change

    Chemical Property: a property of matter that describes a substances ability to participate in chemical reactions
  26. How do mixtures differ from pure substances?
    A pure substance is made of one element that will stay the same no matter how many times it is divided

    A mixture is made of multiple substances combined mechannically opposed to chemiacally
  27. Physical and Chemical Change
    • Chemical Change: A change that occurs when one or more substances change into entirely new substances with different properties.
    • Ex:Cake batter into cake

    • Physical Change a change of matter from one form to another without a change to chemical properties.
    • Ex: An ice pop melting
  28. Describe properties of solids, liquids, and gases.
    Solids: the atoms are compact and aren't free to move around

    Liquids: The atoms are closer together than gas and may move freely but are combined by faint intermelecular forces

    Gases: The atoms are spread far apart and can move around in random motions
  29. troposphere
    first layer of the atmosphere
  30. stratosphere
    the second layer of the atmosphere
  31. mesosphere
    the middle layer of the atmosphere
  32. thermosphere
    the second highest layer of the atmosphere
  33. exosphere
    the highest layer of the atmosphere
  34. fronts
    A front is defined as the transition zone between two air masses of different masses
  35. Coriolis Effect
  36. Trade winds
    The movement of air towards the equator.
  37. doldrums
    a belt of light winds along the equator
  38. barometer
    an instrument for measuring atmospheric pressure
  39. rain gauge
    an instrument used to measure rain fall or snow fall
  40. thermometer
    an instrument that measures the temperature
  41. anemometer
    an instrument used to measure the wind speed and often direction
  42. precipitation
    a form of water that condenses from the atmosphere
  43. temperature
    a measure of hotness or coldness
  44. pollution
    the contamination of air, water, or soil
  45. Ozone layer
    the layer of the atmosphere that absorbs harmful ultraviolet rays from reaching earth
  46. greenhouse gases
    caused by burning fossil fuels which warms the earth's surface even further.

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