Perio 2

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sthomp88
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128478
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Perio 2
Updated:
2012-01-18 01:04:46
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Chapter eight part one
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clinical assessment
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  1. What is the first step in the dental hygiene process of patient care?
    Assessment
  2. The assessment provides the foundation for the subsequent diagnosis, planning, implrementation, and evaluation of dental and dental hygiene care, and is therefore, a __________ part of the overall quality of care delivered to every patient.
    critical
  3. Assessment must be accompanied by the ____________ of information gatehered during the assessment process.
    documentation
  4. Name 4 essential information/procedures to the assessment of a patient's periodontal status.
    • chief complaint
    • medical and dental histories
    • clinical exam
    • radiographic exam
  5. Which portion of the assessment protocol includes medical history and dental history?
    Interview
  6. Which portion of the assessment protocol includes head and neck exam, and oral mucosa assessment?
    extraoral and intraoral assessment
  7. Which portion of the assessment protocol includes plaque biofilm, calculus, and stain?
    oral hygiene assessment
  8. Which portion of the assessment protocol includes probe depth, clinical attachment loss, bleeding and suppuration, furcation detection and measurment, tooth mobility, tooth migration, and implications of implants?
    periodontal assessment
  9. Which portion of the assessment protocol includes caries, restorations, overhanging margins, proximal contact relationships, tooth abnormalities, parafunctional habits, tooth wear, sensitivity or hypersensitivity?
    dentition assessment
  10. Which portion of the assessment protocol includes interdental septa, bone destruction, furcation areas, and dental implants?
    radiographic assessment
  11. The medical history obtained at the initial appointment helps ensure patient safety, health, and well-being by aiding the clinician in what 3 things?
    • evaluation of oral manifestations of systemic disease
    • detection of systemic conditions that affects tissue response
    • special precautions and modifications in tx procedures
  12. true or false. The medical history of the patient must include vitals. It needs to be signed by the RDH only to validate responses.
    • first statement is true
    • second statement is FALSE. must be signed by RDH, and the PATIENT
  13. What 4 items of information should be included in DENTAL history?
    • chief complaint
    • previous dental experience
    • current OH
    • attitudes toward dentistry to help design a plan to meet pt needs
  14. The clinical examination should include what 6 assessments?
    • extraoral
    • intraoral
    • oral mucosa
    • oral hygiene
    • periodontal
    • dentition
  15. What are the 3 types of oral mucosa in the oral cavity?
    • masticatory
    • specialized
    • lining
  16. Which type of mucosa covers the gingiva and hard palate?
    masticatory mucosa
  17. Masticatory mucosa is attached to underlying tissue except with what?
    margingal/unattached gingiva
  18. Is masticatory mucosa movable or immovable?
    immovable
  19. is masticatory mucosa keratinized or nonkeratinized?
    keratinized
  20. Which type of mucosa covers the dorsum of the tongue?
    specialezed mucosa
  21. specialized mucosa contains ___________ and ___________
    • tastebuds
    • papillae
  22. list 6 areas that are covered by the lining mucosa.
    • floor of mouth
    • ventral surface of tongue
    • inner lips
    • inner cheeks
    • vestibule
    • soft palate
  23. is lining mucosa movable or immovable?
    movable
  24. is lining mucosa keratinized or nonkeratinized?
    nonkeratinized
  25. How would you describe the contour of healthy gingiva?
    • pointed, knife-like papillae
    • tissue fills embrasure
  26. How would you describe the color of healthy gingiva?
    pale coral pink
  27. What are 5 terms used to describe the contour of inflammed gingiva/tissue?
    • blunted
    • bulbous
    • cratered
    • festoon-tube like
    • Stillman's cleft - slit like depression
  28. Assessment of periodontal health includes: description and ______ of oral mucosa features; ________ for planning tx and outcome; consistent _________ between providers; and make sure to use ________ recognized descriptions
    • documentation
    • baseline
    • evaluation
    • universal
  29. The oral Hygiene assessment is a clinical evaluation of what 3 things?
    • biofilm
    • calculus
    • stain
  30. List ways to detect each of the following types of calculus:
    supra
    sub
    heavy
    • supra: seen when dried with air
    • sub: light careful exploring
    • heavy: can be seen on radiographs
  31. What is the most commonly occuring stain?
    brown stain
  32. Which type of stain is a thin, translucent, acquired, usually bacteria-free, pigmented pellicle?
    Brown stain
  33. true or false. Brown stain is frequently associated with insufficient oral hygiene
    true
  34. Where dows brown stain occur?
    • gingival margin
    • interproximal
  35. Brown stain is often caused by _______; which has a denaturing effect on pellicle proteins.
    tannin
  36. name 4 things that tannin is found in.
    • coffee
    • tea
    • fruit
    • wine
  37. Is black stain firmly or loosely attached?
    firmly
  38. is black stain more common in women or men?
    women
  39. true or false. Black stain is only found in people with poor oral hygiene.
    FALSE. It can be found in people with excellent hygiene
  40. Black stain found in children is typically associated with a ____ incidence of caries
    low
  41. The microflora of black stain is dominated by ____________ bacteria; which may be the cause of the black pigmentation
    chromogenic
  42. Is green stain thin or thick?
    thick
  43. Is green stain usually associated with children or adults?
    children
  44. true or false. Green stain is associated with poor oral hygiene
    true
  45. Where on the teeth does green stain usually occur?
    gingival half of facial surfaces of anterior teeth
  46. The discoloration of green stain has been attributed to fluorescent bacteria and fungi such as what? (2)
    • penicillium - (kids have to tak lots of penicillin because they are always sick)
    • aspergillus - (asperigus is green)
  47. true or false. Orange stain is very common
    FALSE. it is uncommon
  48. On what surfaces of teeth is orange stain usually found?
    facial and lingual of anterior teeth
  49. true or false. Orange stain is associated with poor oral hygiene
    true
  50. Orange stain forms on loosely attached ___________
    debris
  51. Name 2 chromogenic organisms that have been suggested as the responsible organisms for orange stain.
    • serratia murcescens - (use a serrated knife to cut murcy's oranges)
    • flavobacterium lutescens - (oranges have "luts" of flavor)
    • *oranges have a strong "scent" (for scens)
  52. Periodontal includes assessment of what 5 aspects?
    • probe depths
    • clinical attachment levels
    • assessing gingival bleeding
    • furcations
    • mobility
  53. Increased bleeding is not always an absolute predictor of actie disease. increased bleeding may be present in patients taking what?
    • aspirin
    • anticoagulant therapy
  54. The absence of bleeding generally indicates current __________ of the periodontium
    stability
  55. The presence of suppuration or purulent exudate in combination with periodontal pockets and bleeding on probing can indicate what?
    That the site is subject to periodontal disease progression
  56. Which grade of furcation has pocket formation into the flute of the furca, but the interradicular bone is intact?
    Grade I
  57. Which grade of furcation hs loss of interradicular bone, with pocket formation of varying depths into the furca but not completely through to the opposite side of the tooth?
    Grade II
  58. Which grade of furcation has complete loss of interradicular bone, with pocket formation that is completely probable to the opposite side of the tooth?
    Grade III
  59. Which grade of furcation has loss of attachment and gingival recession making the furca clearly visible on clinical examination?
    Grade IV
  60. The following assessments are important in which area?
    investigate slightest change
    radiodensity suggests involvment in the area
    assume it is boneloss on one root of a molar
    furcatino involvment
  61. Which grade of mobility is physiologic mobility only?
    Grade 0
  62. Which grade of mobility is clinical mobility that is slightly greater than physiologic mobility but less than 1 mm buccolingually?
    Grade 1/2
  63. Which grade of mobility is slight pathologic mobility, approximately 1 mm buccolingually?
    Grade 1
  64. Which grade of mobility is moderate pathologic mobility approximately 2 mm buccolingually, but no vertical displacement?
    Grade 2
  65. Which grade of mobility is severe pathologic mobility greater than 2 mm buccolingually or mesiodistally combined with vertical displacement?
    Grade 3
  66. Which type of mobility is normal or expected mobility of a tooth? And at what time of day is it greatest?
    • physiologic
    • morning
  67. Which type of mobility is caused by factors affecting periodontal ligament space?
    pathological
  68. What are 2 factors that affect the periodontal ligament space that may cause pathologic mobility?
    • loss of alveolar bone
    • horizontal or vertical bone loss
  69. true or false. Pathological mobility of teeth depends on the severity and distribution of the bone loss.
    true
  70. What occurs when periodontal disease disturbs that balance among the factors that maintain physiologic tooth position?
    Pathologic migration of teeth
  71. true or false. In pathologic tooth migration, teeth only migrate mesially.
    FALSE. they can move in any direction
  72. true or false. Tooth migration may occur from unreplaced missing teeth and tongue thrust.
    true
  73. Dentition assessment is a clinical evaluation of what 6 things?
    • teeth for caries
    • restoration status
    • proximal contacts
    • anomalies
    • sensitivity
    • habits
  74. Which G.V. class is pit and fissure cavities; occlusal surfaces of premolars and molars; occlusal two thirds of facials and linguals on molars; and lingual surface of maxillary incisors?
    Class 1
  75. Which G.V. class is proximal cavities in premolars and molars?
    Class 2
  76. Which G.V. class is proximal cavities in incisors and canines (no incisal edge)
    Class 3
  77. Which G.V. class is proximal cavities in incisors and canines and involves the incisal edge?
    Class 4
  78. Which G.V. class is gingival third cavities? (not including pit and fissure cavities)
    Class 5
  79. Which G.V. class is incisal edge and cusp tip cavities?
    Class 6
  80. What type of root caries is the surface texture soft and can be penetrated with a dental explorer? No surface defect or cavitation? And pigmentation is light tan to brown?
    • Grade I
    • incipient
  81. Which type of root caries is the surface textrue soft, irregular, and rough, and can be penetrated by a dental explorer? Surface defect is less than 0.5 mm deep? And pigmentation is from tan to dark brown?
    • Grade II
    • Shallow
  82. Which type of root careis is the surface texture soft and can be penetrated with a dental explorer? Penetrating lesion with cavitation that is greater than 0.5 mm deep; no pulpal involvement? Pigmentation is brown to dark brown?
    • Grade III
    • cavitation
  83. Which type of root caries is deeply penetrating lesion with pulpal involvement? Pigmentation is from brown to dark brown?
    • Grade IV
    • pulpal
  84. What is tooth wear caused by mecanical process of foreign objects such as a tooth brush, or other personal habits?
    abrasion
  85. What tooth wear appears as a "V" shaped defect or notch on buccal surfaces; and a ditch, notch, or indentation on the incisal and occlusal surfaces?
    Abrasion
  86. Which tooth wear is caused by mechanical process involving tooth flexure by eccentric occlusal forces?
    abfraction
  87. What appears as a V or wedge shape with sharp edges at the cervical surface of teeth?
    abfraction
  88. Which tooth wear is caused by tooth-to-tooth contact?
    attrition
  89. Which form of tooth wear is caused by chemical acids?
    erosion
  90. Where is dietary erosion most often seen?
    cervical and buccal surfaces of maxillary teeth and occlusal and buccal surfaces of mandibular teeth
  91. Where is gastric erosion most commonly seen?
    lingual surfaces of anterior and posterior maxillary teeth, buccal surfaces of mandibular posterioro teeth, and occlusal surfaces of mandibular and maxillary posterior teeth
  92. Which type of examination is an essential adjunct to clincal examination, assesses bone destruction, and can be used to compare changes over time?
    radiographic examination
  93. true or false. Radiographic examination indicates the presence of active disease.
    FALSE. it does NOT
  94. Bone changes are noted based on the appearance of what on a radiograph?
    the interdental septa
  95. The interdental septum normally has a thin radiopaque border adjacent to the PDL space, this is called what?
    lamina dura

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