Sociology InstantCert Group 2

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rebma85
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12848
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Sociology InstantCert Group 2
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2010-04-01 21:54:21
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Sociology InstantCert CLEP
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CLEP Sociology InstantCert
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  1. _______ can refer either to something as broad as human association, or more narrowly--a group of people living in a certain geographical area who share a common culture.
    Society can refer either to something as broad as human association, or more narrowly--a group of people living in a certain geographical area who share a common culture.
  2. Sociocultural evolution refers to the idea that as time passes, society becomes more _______.
    Sociocultural evolution refers to the idea that as time passes, society becomes more complex.
  3. Hunting societies depend on hunting animals and gathering vegetation for food, and are _______--constantly moving around as the local sources of food are used up.
    Hunting societies depend on hunting animals and gathering vegetation for food, and are nomadic--constantly moving around as the local sources of food are used up.

    • Explanation:
    • There are few hunting and gathering societies left in the world--there are a few tribes in Africa and Malaysia who can still be classified as this type of society.
  4. Horticultural societies grow their own food, but their level of technology is very primitive--____ tools are used to farm.
    Horticultural societies grow their own food, but their level of technology is very primitive--hand tools are used to farm.

    • Explanation:
    • These societies were mobile--they had to move as the land's resources were used up, or water supplies dwindled.
  5. ________ societies have dedicated animals as their primary source of food.
    Pastoral societies have dedicated animals as their primary source of food.

    • Explanation:
    • Pastoral societies pasture animals for food. Some pastoral societies can be seen in Africa, where planting crops are not possible. Pastoral and horticultural societies are primitive, and come after hunting and gathering societies in level of complexity.
  6. Ethnicity refers to a shared cultural ________ that defines a group of people.
    Ethnicity refers to a shared cultural heritage that defines a group of people.

    • Explanation:
    • Ethnicity involves cultural ties--shared cultural practices, perspectives and distinctions. Ethnic differences are learned, they have nothing to do with genetics. Physical differences, many which are inherited and based on genetics, are the basis of race, not ethnicity.
  7. Since the 1970’s the number of American _______ involved in sports has increased dramatically.
    Since the 1970’s the number of American females involved in sports has increased dramatically.

    • Explanation:
    • In 1971, only 1 in 27 high school girls played sports but by 1996 that number changed to 1 in 3. In 1972, US colleges averaged only two women's teams per campus, by 2002 that number increased to eight teams per campus.
  8. ____________ societies depend on farming, but use techniques such as irrigation and draft animals to produce a large surplus.
    Agricultural societies depend on farming, but use techniques such as irrigation and draft animals to produce a large surplus.

    • Explanation:
    • Agricultural societies are more advanced than horticultural or pastoral societies--mainly because the level of technology they use has advanced. They produce large surpluses of food, so their settlements are more permanent.
  9. In an __________ society, machines, many which are fuel-driven, are used to produce goods.
    In an industrial society, machines, many which are fuel-driven, are used to produce goods.

    • Explanation:
    • Industrial society is one which is based on complex machines to produce goods. During the 18th century, the Industrial Revolution led to goods being produced in mechanized factories in England, which was the first industrial society.
  10. A postindustrial society is based on ___________, knowledge, and selling of services, instead of being driven by factory production of goods.
    A postindustrial society is based on information, knowledge, and selling of services, instead of being driven by factory production of goods.

    • Explanation:
    • With recent technological advances, especially with the development of computers, postindustrial society revolves around storing, manipulating, and selling information.
  11. Karl Marx believed that all societies are marked by _____ conflict, where the poor are exploited by the rich and powerful.
    Karl Marx believed that all societies are marked by class conflict, where the poor are exploited by the rich and powerful.

    • Explanation:
    • Karl Marx defined two classes--the proletariat, who were the laborers, and the bourgeoisie, who were the ones who exploited the laborers and owned the means of production. He said that someday the proletariat would overthrow the bourgeoisie, and a class-free society would be established.
  12. ______________ believed that society limits our insatiable desires and gives our lives meaning.
    Emile Durkheim believed that society limits our insatiable desires and gives our lives meaning.

    • Explanation:
    • Emile Durkheim stated that humans were different from other animals, because we are not satisfied once our biological needs are met, and we need a sense of meaning or purpose. He said that society is the answer to these two things, and therefore is a source of moral and mental life.
  13. Emile Durkheim was a French sociologist who was the first person to systematically apply __________ methods to sociology.
    Emile Durkheim was a French sociologist who was the first person to systematically apply scientific methods to sociology.

    • Explanation:
    • Emile Durkheim extensively used statistics in his sociological research and believed that sociologists should only consider observable, or objective evidence only.
  14. One of the things Emile Durkheim is famous for is his definition of four types of _______, including egoistic, altruistic, anomic, and fatalistic types.
    One of the things Emile Durkheim is famous for is his definition of four types of suicide, including egoistic, altruistic, anomic, and fatalistic types.

    • Explanation:
    • Egoistic suicide results from too little social integration, while altruistic suicide is from too much integration--i.e. voluntary self sacrifice in the military. Anomic suicide results from not having the means to fulfill needs, and fatalistic suicide occurs in those with overregulated, unrewarding lives--i.e. slaves.
  15. Max Weber came up with a method which he called _________, which allows sociologists to mentally put themselves into the "other person's shoes" and obtain an "interpretative understanding" of individual behavior.
    Max Weber came up with a method which he called verstehen, which allows sociologists to mentally put themselves into the "other person's shoes" and obtain an "interpretative understanding" of individual behavior.

    • Explanation:
    • Verstehen means "empathetic understanding."
  16. ______ is a person's position in society or a group.
    Status is a person's position in society or a group.

    • Explanation:
    • It includes things such as being a computer science major, a wife, a Hispanic-American, etc.. People can have many statuses which they occupy simultaneously.
  17. An ascribed status is one which the person has, not because he tried to achieve it, but either through _____ or some other reason beyond his control.
    An ascribed status is one which the person has, not because he tried to achieve it, but either through birth or some other reason beyond his control.

    • Explanation:
    • Things such as your race or gender, or the fact that you are a son or daughter or a widower, are all ascribed statuses.
  18. An ________ status is one that a person has because of something he did, or through his efforts.
    An achieved status is one that a person has because of something he did, or through his efforts.

    • Explanation:
    • The person had some degree of control in getting this status. Examples are being a husband, a teacher, a Boy Scout, etc..
  19. A ______ status is the most important status a person holds, and is the status that the person is most identified with.
    A master status is the most important status a person holds, and is the status that the person is most identified with.

    • Explanation:
    • People typically assume that a person has certain traits associated with their master status.
  20. All of the statuses a person occupies are known as his status ___.
    All of the statuses a person occupies are known as his status set.

    • Explanation:
    • One man's status set might be that he is a father, a husband, an engineer, and a co-worker.
  21. Urbanization theories are theories that attempt to determine patterns in the development of ______.
    Urbanization theories are theories that attempt to determine patterns in the development of cities.

    • Explanation:
    • These theories try to find patterns of urban growth. Some major theories are the multiple nuclei theory, concentric zone theory, and the sector theory.
  22. Role strain is where different and conflicting ____________ exist for a particular status.
    Role strain is where different and conflicting expectations exist for a particular status.

    • Explanation:
    • An example is in the case of a manager--he may socialize with the subordinates but at the same time maintain a distance as he makes sure they perform as required.
  23. _____________ is where some of a person's statuses conflict with each other.
    Role conflict is where some of a person's statuses conflict with each other.

    • Explanation:
    • For example, a father may find that his job as a security guard conflicts with his responsibilities as a father.
  24. Emile Durkheim said that change could result in ______ either in the whole society or some parts of it.
    Emile Durkheim said that change could result in anomie either in the whole society or some parts of it.

    • Explanation:
    • Anomie refers to a condition of relative normlessness--social regulations break down, the controlling influence of society on individual propensities is no longer as effective and individuals are left to their own devices.
  25. A peer group is an association of self-selected ______, based on friendship, a sense of belonging, and acceptance.
    A peer group is an association of self-selected equals, based on friendship, a sense of belonging, and acceptance.

    • Explanation:
    • The peer group competes with the family for the dominant group in a person's life.
  26. Charles Horton Cooley defined two types of groups. In a _______ group, the members intimately and warmly interact over a long period of time.
    Charles Horton Cooley defined two types of groups. In a primary group, the members intimately and warmly interact over a long period of time.

    • Explanation:
    • Examples are families, friends, neighbors, church members, etc.
  27. Charles Horton Cooley defined two types of groups. In a _________ group, the members do not interact much--the interaction may be anonymous, or for a short duration, and with few emotional ties.
    Charles Horton Cooley defined two types of groups. In a secondary group, the members do not interact much--the interaction may be anonymous, or for a short duration, and with few emotional ties.

    • Explanation:
    • An example is a stockbroker and his clients.
  28. Per hour worked, women now earn about __ percent of what men earn.
    Per hour worked, women now earn about 75 percent of what men earn.

    • Explanation:
    • The gap has been steadily closing.
  29. _________________ defined two types of social groups--gemeinschaft and gesellschaft. Gemeinschaft refers to small communities consisting largely of primary group relationships.
    Ferdinand Tonnies defined two types of social groups--gemeinschaft and gesellschaft. Gemeinschaft refers to small communities consisting largely of primary group relationships.

    • Explanation:
    • Gemeinschaft, often translated as community, is exemplified by the family or neighborhood.
  30. Ferdinand Tonnies defined two types of social groups--gemeinschaft and gesellschaft. ____________ refers to groups where membership is based on contractual relationships--the members have a particular goal they want to achieve.
    Ferdinand Tonnies defined two types of social groups--gemeinschaft and gesellschaft. Gesellschaft refers to groups where membership is based on contractual relationships--the members have a particular goal they want to achieve.

    • Explanation:
    • Gesellschaft, often translated as society, is a group in which membership is goal-oriented. Examples are a city or state, which are larger than Gemeinschaft societies (family, village, town), and are based on trade and modern industry.
  31. Institutionalized racism is racism which has been codified into society's institutions of custom, practice, and ___.
    Institutionalized racism is racism which has been codified into society's institutions of custom, practice, and law.

    • Explanation:
    • This type of racism is basically discrimination which is built into the social structure--there is no identifiable perpetrator.
  32. An artificial barrier in the work world which makes promotion beyond a certain level for certain groups difficult, is called a _____ ceiling.
    An artificial barrier in the work world which makes promotion beyond a certain level for certain groups difficult, is called a glass ceiling.

    • Explanation:
    • This term was first applied exclusively to women but later came to include minority men.
  33. A dyad is a group consisting of ___ people.
    A dyad is a group consisting of two people.

    • Explanation:
    • It is the most cohesive of all groups because it has the potential for close and intense interaction. As the size of a group grows, it tends to get less intimate; members participate and cooperate less.
  34. A _____ is a group which consists of three people.
    A triad is a group which consists of three people.

    • Explanation:
    • It does not tend to be as cohesive and personal as a dyad.
  35. __________ is a technique developed by J. L. Moreno for figuring out the direction of interaction in a small group.
    Sociometry is a technique developed by J. L. Moreno for figuring out the direction of interaction in a small group.

    • Explanation:
    • Sociometry is a fancy word for finding out who is interacting with whom. An example of this technique is asking "Who is your best friend in the group?"
  36. An ________ is a group which a person belongs to.
    An in-group is a group which a person belongs to.

    • Explanation:
    • We belong to in-groups and we often feel a sense of competition or opposition to out-groups.
  37. A reference group is a social group we use to provide the standards for how we ________ ourselves.
    A reference group is a social group we use to provide the standards for how we evaluate ourselves.

    • Explanation:
    • For example, if a student thinks he is doing well in school because he is ranked first in his class, his class is the reference group. If he bases his perception on how his family reacts, his family is the reference group.
  38. Group __________ is where a person goes along with group goals, doing things they normally would not do, to be accepted.
    Group conformity is where a person goes along with group goals, doing things they normally would not do, to be accepted.

    • Explanation:
    • Group conformity refers to a person's compliance with group goals even when they are in conflict with his own goals.
  39. Groupthink is where members of a group think similarly and conform to each other's views, often at the expense of ignoring _______.
    Groupthink is where members of a group think similarly and conform to each other's views, often at the expense of ignoring reality.

    • Explanation:
    • It usually results in decisions being made from a narrow point of view. Members with doubts and alternate ideas do not speak out because dissenting opinions are not tolerated.
  40. ____________ leaders are achievement motivated; they are task-oriented leaders who are interested in achieving the goals.
    Instrumental leaders are achievement motivated; they are task-oriented leaders who are interested in achieving the goals.

    • Explanation:
    • They often make good managers because they are efficient, but they are not always well-liked by their subordinates.
  41. Expressive leaders are affiliation motivated--they want to maintain warm, friendly _____________, and make sure that the subordinates are satisfied.
    Expressive leaders are affiliation motivated--they want to maintain warm, friendly relationships, and make sure that the subordinates are satisfied.

    • Explanation:
    • They often use a cooperative style of management, instead of a directive style used by instrumental leaders.
  42. A formal organization is a secondary group with a goal-directed agenda. It is characterized by formality, ranked positions, and complex ________ of labor.
    A formal organization is a secondary group with a goal-directed agenda. It is characterized by formality, ranked positions, and complex division of labor.

    • Explanation:
    • Examples include colleges, businesses, political parties, and the military.
  43. A formal organization consists of informal organizations--which are made up by the informal _________ among the workers.
    A formal organization consists of informal organizations--which are made up by the informal relations among the workers.

    • Explanation:
    • Good informal relations usually improve worker satisfaction and productivity.
  44. The population natural growth rate is calculated by subtracting the _____ rate from the birth rate.
    The population natural growth rate is calculated by subtracting the death rate from the birth rate.

    • Explanation:
    • Subtract the death rate from the birth rate and divide by 10. The equation for calculating a population's natural growth rate is (BR-DR) / 10.
  45. Malthus believed that population growth had a tendency to ______ food production.
    Malthus believed that population growth had a tendency to exceed food production.

    • Explanation:
    • Thomas Malthus predicted that population would grow geometrically while food production would grow only arithmetically. The result of the food shortage, he believed, would be wars, epidemics and finally famine.
  46. The number one cause of death in the ____ is heart disease.
    The number one cause of death in the U.S. is heart disease

    • Explanation:
    • Meanwhile, in low-income, less developed countries, infectious diseases remain the leading cause of death.
  47. A bureaucracy is an organization whose goal is to perform complex tasks as efficiently as possible--it is guided by _____ and written procedures, and is usually rigid and inflexible.
    A bureaucracy is an organization whose goal is to perform complex tasks as efficiently as possible--it is guided by rules and written procedures, and is usually rigid and inflexible.

    • Explanation:
    • This is a very formal type of organization. It has a strict hierarchy of authority, everything is governed by written rules and procedures, and it is composed of highly specialized jobs.
  48. The classic model of modern bureaucracy was proposed by German sociologist Max _____.
    The classic model of modern bureaucracy was proposed by German sociologist Max Weber.

    • Explanation:
    • Weber believed the formation of bureaucracies inevitable due to the complex nature of modern life compounded by the growing demands placed on governments by their citizens. He believed promotion of bureaucrats should be gradual and based on merit rather than political connections.
  49. Parkinson's Law states that in a bureaucratic organization, "work _______ to fill the time available for its completion."
    Parkinson's Law states that in a bureaucratic organization, "work expands to fill the time available for its completion."

    • Explanation:
    • The idea is that bureaucracies always grow because managers continue to hire people to look busy and expand their "empire." Instead of doing just what needs to be done, managers create more work to fill the available time.
  50. Overurbanization is the condition where population growth outpaces __________ growth.
    Overurbanization is the condition where population growth outpaces industrial growth.

    • Explanation:
    • Basically, it is a condition where population increases in urban areas beyond the capacity of the existing structure to cope with them.
  51. The Peter Principle states that employees in a bureaucracy are promoted to their level of ____________.
    The Peter Principle states that employees in a bureaucracy are promoted to their level of incompetence.

    • Explanation:
    • The idea is that competent managers are continuously promoted until eventually they reach a position in which they are incompetent. At that point, they don't receive further promotions; they're stuck in that position performing incompetently.
  52. Robert Michels came up with the Iron Law of Oligarchy, which said that in every organization, a _____ number of people actually make the decisions.
    Robert Michels came up with the Iron Law of Oligarchy, which said that in every organization, a small number of people actually make the decisions.

    • Explanation:
    • According to this law, a small number of people in any organization end up making the decisions, even if the authority is supposed to belong to the members. The leaders end up growing more powerful than originally intended and develop values which are at odds with the members.

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