Sociology InstantCert Group 3

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rebma85
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Sociology InstantCert Group 3
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2010-04-01 21:51:45
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Sociology InstantCert CLEP
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Sociology InstantCert CLEP
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  1. Deviance is any behavior which violates social _____, and can either be criminal or non-criminal.
    Deviance is any behavior which violates social norms, and can either be criminal or non-criminal.

    • Explanation
    • It varies depending on the norms for a society. In American society, things such as alcoholism, public nudity, stealing, and cross-dressing are considered deviant.
  2. A ______ is a "mark of social disgrace," where the person's deviance is recognized by others.
    A stigma is a "mark of social disgrace," where the person's deviance is recognized by others.

    • Explanation:
    • Many people engage in acts which could be considered deviant by their society, but manage to keep it secret. As long as these people are not stigmatized, or marked deviant, they tend to consider themselves normal.
  3. Social control refers to the ways of getting people to _______ to norms.
    Social control refers to the ways of getting people to conform to norms.

    • Explanation:
    • It includes methods such as persuasion, teaching, and force. Informal social controls are based on approval or disapproval of people whose opinion matters to the deviant. Formal social controls involve people who are in a position to enforce norms.
  4. ______ is the confusion that arises when social norms conflict or don't even exist.
    Anomie is the confusion that arises when social norms conflict or don't even exist.

    • Explanation:
    • Anomie theory was proposed by Robert Merton to explain deviance, the idea being that there is a often a gap between socially accepted goals and the means to accomplish them. In American society, becoming wealthy is a major goal, but many do not have the means to become wealthy, and end up turning to deviance.
  5. Edwin Sutherland proposed the ________________________ theory to explain how people learn deviance.
    Edwin Sutherland proposed the differential association theory to explain how people learn deviance.

    • Explanation:
    • The idea behind this theory is that people learn deviant behavior, like other behavior, from their interaction with others. For example, juvenile gangs provide an environment which encourages criminal behavior, and members learn deviance as they conform to the group's norms.
  6. The family of orientation is the group into which a person is ____.
    The family of orientation is the group into which a person is born.
  7. The family of procreation is the group formed in adulthood by people when they have ________.
    The family of procreation is the group formed in adulthood by people when they have children.

    • Explanation:
    • In American society, when a child is born, he typically lives with his family of orientation, which consists of his parents and any brothers or sisters. Once he grows up and has children of his own, he lives with his family of procreation, which consists of his children and spouse.
  8. A _______ family consists only of a mother, father, and their children.
    A nuclear family consists only of a mother, father, and their children.

    • Explanation:
    • On the other hand, in an extended family, people in a nuclear family live with other families such as grandparents and relatives.
  9. In an ________ family, parents and children live with other close relatives.
    In an extended family, parents and children live with other close relatives.

    • Explanation:
    • Extended families are especially common in Asian societies, where one house may consist of three generations of related families living together. Nuclear families, which consist only of a set of parents and their children, are dominant in the United States.
  10. The American sociologist William J. Goode, theorized that changing family patterns were ___ a simple effect of one cause, industrialization.
    The American sociologist William J. Goode, theorized that changing family patterns were not a simple effect of one cause, industrialization.

    • Explanation:
    • Goode's book, World Revolution and Family Patterns, noted a trend in industrialized societies toward nuclear family households. He called these smaller family units the "western conjugal family system."
  11. A family where the majority of the authority is vested in the father is known as a __________.
    A family where the majority of the authority is vested in the father is known as a patriarchy.

    • Explanation:
    • This is opposed to a matriarchy, where the mother has the authority.
  12. Matrilocality, patrilocality, and neolocality indicate where _________ will live.
    Matrilocality, patrilocality, and neolocality indicate where newlyweds will live.

    • Explanation:
    • Matrilocality happens when they live with the wife's family.
  13. Patrilocality indicates that newlyweds live with the husband's family while ___________ is when they live separate from their extended families.
    Patrilocality indicates that newlyweds live with the husband's family while neolocality is when they live separate from their extended families.
  14. In exogamy, marriage occurs _______ of specific groups.
    In exogamy, marriage occurs outside of specific groups.

    • Explanation:
    • An example is in American culture, one must marry with someone outside of his family. This is in contrast to endogamy, where one marries within a certain group. An example is marrying someone of the same race--this is often an encouraged form of endogamy.
  15. Polygamy is where a marriage involves more than one ______.
    Polygamy is where a marriage involves more than one spouse.

    • Explanation:
    • For example, a man with three wives is practicing polygamy. Polygamy can be broken down into polygyny and polyandry.
  16. ________ is a form of polygamy, where a man has several wives at once.
    Polygyny is a form of polygamy, where a man has several wives at once.

    • Explanation:
    • This is in contrast to polyandry, where a woman has several husbands at once.
  17. _________________ is how work is divided among people in a social group or organization.
    Division of labor is how work is divided among people in a social group or organization.
  18. In the _______ sector of the economy, people are directly involved with extraction and cultivation of natural resources.
    In the primary sector of the economy, people are directly involved with extraction and cultivation of natural resources.

    • Explanation:
    • It includes activities such as hunting, gathering, farming, and mining.
  19. The _________ rate is calculated by dividing the number of births in a year by the number of women aged 15 to 44.
    The fertility rate is calculated by dividing the number of births in a year by the number of women aged 15 to 44.

    • Explanation:
    • Actually, you multiply that number by 1000 to get the fertility rate but the basic thing to keep in mind is that the number of live births is divided by the number of women between 15 and 44.
  20. The economic __________ ratio is the number of people in the total population who are not in the total work force.
    The economic dependency ratio is the number of people in the total population who are not in the total work force.

    • Explanation:
    • The largest component of the dependency ratio is made up of those under 16 but the fastest growing component consists of those over age 65.
  21. The secondary sector of the economy is where raw materials are turned into ____________ goods.
    The secondary sector of the economy is where raw materials are turned into manufactured goods.

    • Explanation:
    • It includes mills and factories, and turns raw materials into things such as fuel, clothes, automobiles, etc.
  22. The ________ sector of the economy refers to services, rather than physical goods.
    The tertiary sector of the economy refers to services, rather than physical goods.

    • Explanation:
    • It involves services such as health, education, entertainment, etc.
  23. The barter system is a form of distribution in which goods or services are _________ directly for other things which are considered to be of equivalent value.
    The barter system is a form of distribution in which goods or services are exchanged directly for other things which are considered to be of equivalent value.

    • Explanation:
    • This was the primary form of distribution before money became a medium of trade. For example, a woman might trade three chickens to have a neighbor forge her a pot.
  24. Karl Marx believed that class ________ marks all societies, the classes being defined by who owns the means of production.
    Karl Marx believed that class conflict marks all societies, the classes being defined by who owns the means of production.

    • Explanation:
    • The bourgeoisie own the means of production, and are in conflict with the proletariat, who do not.
  25. In a free-market system of distribution, the value of goods and services are based on _________________ and uses money as a medium for trade.
    In a free-market system of distribution, the value of goods and services are based on supply and demand and uses money as a medium for trade.
  26. Traditional authority comes from long-held _______--people follow not because of the leader's qualifications, but because that's what people have always done.
    Traditional authority comes from long-held customs--people follow not because of the leader's qualifications, but because that's what people have always done.

    • Explanation:
    • A king is a good example. He wasn't chosen for his position based on his qualifications--he is probably king because his parents were royalty.
  27. _____ authority is based on rational grounds and usually a body of laws which have been legally enacted or contractually established
    legal authority is based on rational grounds and usually a body of laws which have been legally enacted or contractually established.

    • Explanation:
    • For example, in a company, a person is required to acknowledge management's authority as long as he is an employee.
  28. According to Max Weber, charismatic authority is based on the ability to influence others through exemplary or extraordinary _________ attributes.
    According to Max Weber, charismatic authority is based on the ability to influence others through exemplary or extraordinary character attributes.

    • Explanation:
    • Many politicians have some degree of charismatic authority. Much of Hitler's power was thought to be based on charismatic authority--leaders of religious cults are often charismatic.
  29. A ___________ is a region made up of several large cities and their surrounding areas in sufficient proximity to be considered a single urban complex.
    A megalopolis is a region made up of several large cities and their surrounding areas in sufficient proximity to be considered a single urban complex.

    • Explanation:
    • A megalopolis is created when the suburbs surrounding several metropolises grow and merge together, forming one continuous urban complex.
  30. Max Weber believed that authority is ultimately granted by those being governed--the people must _______ in the ruler or leader's legitimacy.
    Max Weber believed that authority is ultimately granted by those being governed--the people must believe in the ruler or leader's legitimacy.

    • Explanation:
    • Legitimacy is where the people being led believe that the leader has a legitimate right to command. Max Weber differentiated between three different ways of getting legitimacy--traditional, rational-legal, and charismatic authority.
  31. An authoritarian government is one in which the people being governed have little or no say in government's operations--the rulers are dictators who do not tolerate __________ to their authority.
    An authoritarian government is one in which the people being governed have little or no say in government's operations--the rulers are dictators who do not tolerate opposition to their authority.

    • Explanation:
    • The three main types of government are authoritarian, totalitarian, and democratic.
  32. ________ mobility involves moving from one social level to another, instead of moving within the same social level.
    Vertical mobility involves moving from one social level to another, instead of moving within the same social level.

    • Explanation:
    • Vertical mobility can either be upward or downward. An example of upward mobility might be moving up the corporate ladder, whereas downward mobility would be the opposite--i.e. going from wealth to poverty. This is in contrast to horizontal mobility, which would be a change in status within the same social level--i.e. switching from one janitorial job to another.
  33. A ____________ government is one in which the rulers exercise absolute and centralized control over all aspects of life.
    A totalitarian government is one in which the rulers exercise absolute and centralized control over all aspects of life.

    • Explanation:
    • A totalitarian government takes the level of authority of the government one step further from an authoritarian government. In a totalitarian government, the rulers regulate every realm of the people's life.
  34. In a democratic government, the people have a right to ___________ in government, and ultimately hold the authority over how they are governed.
    In a democratic government, the people have a right to participate in government, and ultimately hold the authority over how they are governed.

    • Explanation:
    • A democratic government gives the people a voice in how the government works, in contrast to an authoritarian or totalitarian government, where the rulers make all decisions and tolerate no opposition.
  35. C. Wright Mills published a book called _______________. He stated that a small group of military leaders, politicians, and business leaders cooperate and form a "ruling class" in America.
    C. Wright Mills published a book called The Power Elite. He stated that a small group of military leaders, politicians, and business leaders cooperate and form a "ruling class" in America.

    • Explanation:
    • His theory forms the basis for the Power Elite model of political structure in the United States. This is in contrast to the Pluralist Model, which says that power is dispersed throughout many competing interest groups.
  36. David Riesman believed that a _________ Model of power exists in the United States, where power is dispersed through many competing interest groups.
    David Riesman believed that a Pluralist Model of power exists in the United States, where power is dispersed through many competing interest groups.

    • Explanation:
    • In this model, power is dispersed among interest groups and no one can dominate society's decision-making process because of the diversity of interests among the people.
  37. The word ______ refers to religious symbols, objects, and rituals.
    The word sacred refers to religious symbols, objects, and rituals.

    • Explanation:
    • Something which is sacred is holy, or related to religious objects, rites, or practices. This is in contrast to things which are profane, or nonreligious in subject matter, form, or use.
  38. Emile Durkheim wrote The Elementary Forms of _________ Life, in which he stated that religion functions to bind society's members by having them affirm their common beliefs and values on a regular basis.
    Emile Durkheim wrote The Elementary Forms of Religious Life, in which he stated that religion functions to bind society's members by having them affirm their common beliefs and values on a regular basis.

    • Explanation:
    • This work was based on his study of Australian aborigines. He also stated that religion never only concerns belief, but always has regular rituals and ceremonies to keep a sense of group solidarity among the members.
  39. Max Weber studied six of the world's largest religions and wrote the Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of __________.
    Max Weber studied six of the world's largest religions and wrote the Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism.

    • Explanation:
    • Weber wanted to discover religion's impact on social change. He believed that Protestantism's "Work Ethic" played a big part in the development of capitalism in the West, whereas Eastern religions such as Hinduism were barriers to capitalism.
  40. Pure capitalism is an economic system characterized by limited involvement of the government in the economy, individual ownership of the factors of __________, and individuals pursuing their own self interest with few constraints.
    Pure capitalism is an economic system characterized by limited involvement of the government in the economy, individual ownership of the factors of production, and individuals pursuing their own self interest with few constraints.

    • Explanation:
    • Pure capitalism is an economic system in which individuals own productive resources, and those individuals can use resources in whatever manner they choose, subject to common productive legal restrictions. This is different from Welfare Capitalism, which is the type of system in the United States. In welfare capitalism, the government plays a major part in allocating resources.
  41. An _________ exists when a small number of organizations or individuals control a product or service.
    An oligopoly exists when a small number of organizations or individuals control a product or service.

    • Explanation:
    • An example of this is the automobile manufacturing industry.
  42. The simplest form of religious organization is a cult, and normally centers around a ___________ leader. Members of such an organization reject the norms and values of the larger society.
    The simplest form of religious organization is a cult, and normally centers around a charismatic leader. Members of such an organization reject the norms and values of the larger society.

    • Explanation:
    • The three main forms of religious organization are the cult, sect, and church.
  43. A sect is a religious organization, which typically forms in _______ to a larger denomination.
    A sect is a religious organization, which typically forms in protest to a larger denomination.

    • Explanation:
    • It typically has little formal structure and few or no leaders. It differs from a cult in that it does not depend on a charismatic leader for continuity.
  44. A ______ has formally established leadership, an institutionalized way of dealing with money, and many members are automatically born into the organization, rather than voluntarily joining it.
    A church has formally established leadership, an institutionalized way of dealing with money, and many members are automatically born into the organization, rather than voluntarily joining it.

    • Explanation:
    • A church, in this case synonymous with denomination, is a large and established religious body with a formal, bureaucratic structure. This is in contrast to sects and cults, which are less organized and more informal.
  45. Whites make up the biggest group of people in _______.
    Whites make up the biggest group of people in poverty.

    • Explanation:
    • In 1997, 24.4 million whites were in poverty. Whites make up the biggest percentage of people in poverty, however, the poverty rate, which is the percentage of a group which is in poverty, is highest among African Americans and Native Americans (approx 25% vs 11% for whites).
  46. Approximately twenty percent of US ________ live in poverty.
    Approximately twenty percent of US children live in poverty.

    • Explanation:
    • Sociologists attribute this high rate of child poverty to the sharp increase in births outside of wedlock. Today, unmarried women account for one in three of all US births, compared to one in twenty in 1960.
  47. Since official poverty records have been kept, the rate of children in poverty has always been ______ than that of the total population.
    Since official poverty records have been kept, the rate of children in poverty has always been higher than that of the total population.

    • Explanation:
    • For the past two decades, 1 in 5 American children have been below the poverty level.
  48. Since the mid-1970s, poverty among the elderly has fallen and remained _____ the national poverty level since 1982.
    Since the mid-1970s, poverty among the elderly has fallen and remained below the national poverty level since 1982.

    • Explanation:
    • Prior to the mid-1970s, persons aged 65 and older were much more likely to be poor than other Americans.
  49. As a result of lower birth rates and higher life expectancy, the _______ comprise the fastest growing age group in the US.
    As a result of lower birth rates and higher life expectancy, the elderly comprise the fastest growing age group in the US.

    • Explanation:
    • It is estimated that by 2030, persons in the US over the age of 65 will make up 22% of the population.
  50. People over age __ are the most common victims of elder abuse.
    People over age 80 are the most common victims of elder abuse.

    • Explanation:
    • Most cases of elder abuse go unreported because the victims are completely dependent upon their abusers for financial and material support.
  51. The religions of the ____ and Middle East emphasize one god, which is known as monotheism.
    The religions of the West and Middle East emphasize one god, which is known as monotheism.

    • Explanation:
    • Examples are Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
  52. Religions of the Far ____ and Southeast Asia are often polytheistic, or emphasize many gods.
    Religions of the Far East and Southeast Asia are often polytheistic, or emphasize many gods.

    • Explanation:
    • Major religions in the Far East include Buddhism, Hinduism, Shintoism, and Confucianism, and tend to be oriented toward nature, the path to happiness, and the meaning of life.

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