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the Scientific method steps
- Identify the problem- make an observation
- Research and form a hypothesis
- Test your hypothesis – experimentation
- Collect and record data
- Conclusion- analyze your data, was your hypothesis correct?
the variable being tested
The variable being measured
A group that remains the same
The group that is changed
the four types of microscopes
- 1. Compound light microscopes
- 2. Electron microscope
- 3.Transmission electron microscope
- 4.Scanning electron microscope
8 characteristics of life
Grow and develop
Made of cells
the conversion chart
- Kilo Hecto Deka Basic Deci Centi
- Milli Micro Nano
the levels of organization
a single living thing
several organisms of the same species sharing space at the same time
group of interacting organisms sharing space at the same time
Large group of ecosystems that share the same climate and similar types of communities
part of the earth that supports life
is the role or position that an organism has in its environment
is an area where an organism lives
occurs when more than one organism uses a resource at the same time
Competition between organisms of the same species
Competition between organisms of different species
An individual of one species called the predator, eats all or part of an individual of another species called the prey
when 2 or more organisms live together
both organisms benefit
one species benefits the other is unaffected
host is harmed and the parasite benefits
make their own food
consume other organisms for energy
eat only producers
eat only other consumers
consume plants and animals
feed on the garbadge in the ecosystem
feed on organisms that have recently died
break down complex molecules
- Carbon cycle
- Nitrogen cycle
- Phosphorous cycle
- Water cycle
the building blocks of matter
positively charged, contain mass
no charge, contains mass
negatively charged, insignificant mass
a pure substance that cant be broken down into other substances by physical or chemical means
tells us the # of protons (and electrons)
unique for each element.
# of protons and neutrons
contain the same # of protons as the element, but a different number of neutrons.
charged atom or groups of atoms
A pure substance formed when 2 or more elements combine.
compound held together by covalent bonds.
carbon : hydrogen :oxygen (CH2O)
Made mostly of C and H
is made of small carbon compounds called amino acids
complex macromolecules that store and transmit genetic information.
acids are made of smaller repeating subunits called nucleotides
whats being dissolved
what a substance dissolves in
a mixture of two or more substances (solvent and solute)
What is acid for pH?
What is base for pH?
Specialized proteins that act as “catalyst” (speeds up a reaction)
What is a reaction?
Molecules breaking or coming together
What goes in the reaction
What comes out of the reaction
minimum amount of energy needed for reactants to turn into products
released heat energy
absorbed heat energy
How is a Enzyme substrate complex formed?
When a substrate fits in the active site of an enzyme, this forms an enzyme substrate complex.
in 1665, saw dead plant cells using a light microscope, Called them “cellulae” (small rooms)
Was the first person to observe living cells, made microscope with a magnification 10X “Father of microscopes”
- -All living organisms are composed of one or more cells
- -Cells are the basic units of structure and organization of all living organisms
- -Cells come only from the reproduction of existing cells
The wall- protects the internal structures of the cell, determines what comes in and out of the cell.
clear fluid that contains the organelles
Provides the framework for the cell, holds organelles in place
controls the cell.
allow things in and out of nucleus.
Makes polypeptide chains of amino acids, producing Proteins.
contains ribosomes and synthesizes proteins.
No ribosomes, synthesizes lipids (fats).
modifies proteins and fats and gets them ready for export!
large water “bubble” in a plant cell, maintains the shape of the cell, without it, the plant cell would shrink and the plant would wilt.
contain enzymes, break down cellular waste product and debris.
Involved in cell division, works in pairs
Converts oxygen into energy
cilia and flagella
Used in cells for movement, used in stationary cells for moving substances around the outside of the cell.
Capture light energy and convert it to chemical energy (sugar).
Rigid structure, provides strength for the cell.
What is the difference between plant and animal cells?
- plant cells are square, have big vacuoles, chloroplasts, and a cell wall. Animal cells have small vacuoles, centrioles and
Do not have a distinct nucleus, no membrane-bound organelles
Contain a nucleus, contain membrane-bound organelles, makes up most multicellular organisms
What is the cell membrane structure made of?
The cell membrane structure is made of a phospholipid bilayer
Movement of molecules from High concentration to Low Concentration by random motion
Movement of particles across the cell membrane without using energy
Diffusion of water, flows from high to low concentration
Movement of materials across the plasma membrane using proteins
Specific protein that can pump molecules across the membrane, usually in opposite direction of diffusion (Low concentration to high concentration), Requires energy.
water and dissolved substances diffuse into and out of the cell at the same rate.
Solute concentration is higher inside the cell, and water diffuses into the cell.
Solute concentration is higher outside the cell and water diffuses out of the cell.
- "Phospho”-Hydrophillic, Polar (heads)and “lipid”-Hydrophobic, Non-polar
State where plant cells shrink in hypertonic environment
State where cells Burst in hypotonic environment
When Pressure builds up as water moves in and out via Osmosis in plants
is the study of the flow and transformation of energy in the universe
Laws of thermodynamics
- First law —energy can be converted from one form
- to another, but it cannot be created nor destroyed.
- Second law —energy cannot be converted without
- the loss of usable energy.
energy that travels in waves
- the light we see
- - ROYGBIV
- Adenosine Tri Phosphate,
- Structure: Adenine base, ribose sugar, and 3 phosphate groups
For each NADH=3ATP, For each FADH2= 2 ATP
light energy from the Sun is converted to chemical energy for use by the cell·
Chemical equation: 6CO2 + 6H20--> C6H12O6 + 6O2
- green pigment that aids in photosynthesis, found in leaves, appears green and
- allows plants to capture light·
Light dependant reactions
- light energyis absorbed and converted into chemical energy in the form of ATP and NADPH(also produces oxygen).
- - takesplace in the thylakoids -
- Inputs:light and water
- Outputs:Oxygen, ATP and NADPH·
Light Independent reactions (CalvinCycle)
- takes place in the stroma, makes glucose
- Inputs:ATP, NADPH, and Co2
- organic molecules are broken down to release energy for use by the cell,organisms obtain energy.
- Inputs:Oxygen, glucose
- Outputs:6Co2, 6H20, and ATP·
Cell respiration equation
Equation: C6H12O6+6O2-->6CO2 + 6H20 + ATP
3 steps of cellular respiration
glycolysis, Krebs cycle, and electron transportchain
- Occurs in the cytoplasm, breaks glucose apart
- Inputs:Glucose, ATP, ADP, NAD+
- Outputs:2 pyruvates, 4 ATP, NET- 2 ATP and NADH
- occurs in the Mitochondrial matrix
- Inputs:2 pyruvates, ADP, FAD, NAD+, Co-A
- Outputs: 3Co2, 4NADH, 1 ATP, 1 FADH2
- Multiply x2 the amount of pyruvates
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