Resp System

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Resp System
2012-01-17 20:58:40
Respiratory System

Respiratory System
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  1. Respiration is responsible for 2 processes crucial to survival
    • 1: External Respiration
    • 2: Internal Respiration
  2. External Respiration
    The intake of O2 and removal of waste gases that occur in the lungs
  3. Internal Respiration
    The transfer of O2 from the blood to the bodys cells and tissues and the removal of waste gases from these cells into the blood
  4. Upper Respiratory Tract Anatomy
    • All structures of the respiratory tract that are outside the lungs are referred to as the Upper Resp Tract
    • Nostrils, Nasal Passages, Pharynx, trachea, larynx
  5. Nostril or Nares
    A pair of openings at the front of the face constructed mainly of cartilage and thick stratified squamous epithelium
  6. Stenotic Nares
    Very small openings of the nares commonly found in pugs and persians
  7. The nostrils open into the
    Nasal passages
  8. The nasal cavity is lined with
    Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
  9. The epithelial cells posses small finger-like projections on the cell membrane called
    Cillia; The cillia prevent the inhalation of small debris and microbes into the lungs
  10. Goblet Cell
    Produce mucus (thick protein liquid)
  11. The L and R nasal cavities are seperated by a wall called the
    Nasal Septum; The nasal septum is constructed of bone and cartilage; Each nasal cavity is partially divided internally by fine scroll-like bone called TURBINATES
  12. Nasal Meatus
    • The chambers within a nasal cavity created by these TURBINATES
    • All 3 Meatuses travel the length of the nasal cavity eventually communicating with the nasopharynx
  13. Later Side of Nasal Cavity
    3 Meatuses = dorsal, middle and ventral, which is seperated by 2 turbinates
  14. Medial Side of the Nasal Cavity
    Next to the nasal septum = common meatus; this communicates with the other 3 meatuses
  15. Inhalation
    • Air enter through the nares --> passes through the meatuses --> over the turbinates --> the air then enters the pharynx (rostral the the larynx)
    • Air passing through the URT is moistened by the secretions of the goblet cell, filtered by cillia and mucus on the surface and warmed by heat radiating from the nasal mucosa. Nerve ending in the mucosa for the detection of smell
    • The respiratory system contributed to the process of Acid-Base control by its ability to influence the amount of CO2 in the blood
    • Increased CO2 in the blood = decreased blood pH = increased Acidic
  16. Paranasal Sinuses
    Sinuses; Contained within spaces in certain skull bones; Most animals have 2 frontal sinuses and 2 Maxillary sinuses; Some animals have sphenoidal sinus and the ethmoidal sinus located in the sphenoid and ethmoid bones; The sinuses have the same cilliated lining the nasal passages
  17. Pharynx
    • The nasal passages lead into the back of the throat; A common passageway for both Resp and Digestive tract; The soft palate divides the pharynx into the Nasopharynx (dorsal resp passages) and Oropharynx (digestive passageway)
    • The larynx and pharynx work together to keep food from entering the resp system
    • The pharynx opens into the esophagus at its caudal end and ventrally into the larynx
  18. Larynx AKA Voice Box
    • Acts as a "Gate Keeper" to the lower resp tract prevents food and liquid from entering the lower resp tract
    • The Larynx is composed of cartilage plates of varying size covered with a layer of pseudostratified columnar epithelium
  19. The Epiglottis
    A diamond shaped laryngeal cartilage sits in the beginning; The epiglottis acts as a flap covering the glottis (opening of the larynx) for swallowing food and liquid
  20. Thyroid Cartilage
    U shaped with the open end on the dorsal side
  21. Cricoid Cartilage
    Attatched to the caudal side of the thyroid cartilage, it is ring shaped
  22. Arytenoid Cartilage X2
    Sitting inside the U shaped of the thyroid cartilage
  23. Vocal fold
    • A fold of tissue that passes between the thyroid and arytenoid cartilage on each side
    • *These folds are responsible for the animals voice*
  24. Phonation
    • Voice production
    • 2 fibrous connective tissue bands called the vocal cords stretch across the lumen of the larynx and vibrate as air passes
  25. Olfactory
    Sense of smell
  26. Trachea AKA Windpipe
    • Caudal to the larynx; Attatched to the cricoid cartilage
    • A layer of mucus covering the tall, pseudostratified columnar epithelium with cillia on the surface lines the trachea
  27. Tracheal Rings
    • Series of rings of cartilage which makes the structure of the trachea, connected by soft connective tissue to form a tube
    • *More of a "C" shape, open at the dorsal surface*
    • The trachea's muscle covers the opening of tracheal rings
    • The trachea ends by diving into 2 main bronchi at a point called the TRACHEAL BIFURCATION
  28. Lower Respiratory Tract
    Lungs that contain bronchi, bronchioles, respiratory bronchioles, alveoli, blood vessels, nerves, lymphatics, the connective tissue that holds it all together
  29. Air coming into the lungs is moistened so the
    Alveoli dont dry out
  30. Alveolis main function is
    To take O2 form the air and transfer it to the bloodstream
  31. The alveoli help by
    Eliminating wastes from the body by transferring the wastes from the bloodstream to the air thats exhaled