Ch 1 - Vanderschaff

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Ch 1 - Vanderschaff
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2012-01-17 21:06:48
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Chapter 1 - Vanderschaff
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  1. Mass
    The amount of matter in a physical object
  2. All things visible or invisible are classified as...
    Matter or enegy
  3. Matter is...
    Anything that occupies space and has shape or form
  4. An atom is...
    The fundamental building block of matter
  5. The primary characteristic of matter is...
    Mass
  6. Weight is...
    • 1.) The force of exerted by an object under the influence of gravity
    • 2.) Used to describe the mass of an object in a gravitational field
  7. Energy is...
    • -The ability to do work
    • -Has different forms
    • -Measure in Joules
    • -For radiology..referred to as eV (electron volt)
  8. 7 types of energy...
    • Potential
    • Kinetic
    • Electrical
    • Chemical
    • Electromagnetic
    • Thermal
    • Nuclear
  9. Ionization is...
    The removal of an orbital electron from an atom
  10. Ion Pair
    An ejected electron (-) and an atom (+)
  11. 3 forms of electromagnetic radiation
    • Xrays
    • Gamma Rays
    • UV Rays
  12. 2 main sources of radiation
    Natural and Man-made
  13. 1 Sv (Sievert) = ____ rem ?
    100
  14. 3 types of natural radiation
    • Cosmic Rays
    • Terrestrial Radiation
    • Radionuclides in human body (Potassium 40)
  15. REM stands for....
    Radiation Equivalent Man
  16. What is the largest source of man-made radiation?
    Diagnostic Xrays
  17. Examples of Man-Made Radiation
    • Nuclear power plants
    • Airport surveilance
    • Smoke Alarms
  18. Describe a Crooke's Tube
    • -Made by William Crookes
    • -Cathode rays (electrons) in a gas-filled glass tube
    • -Forerunner of modern fluorescent light
    • -Mr. Roentgen experimented with a Crooke's Tube
  19. Mr. Roentgen discovered what and when?
    • -"Barium Platinocyanide" that was used on plates and fluoresced
    • -Nov 8, 1895 ... xrayed wife's hand (Bertha) in 1896 ... won nobel prize in 1901
  20. Who performed the first xray and when?
    Mr. Roentgen... Feb 1896
  21. Who discovered the fluoroscope and when?
    Thomas Edison / 1898
  22. Who was the first person to die from exposure and was Thomas Edison's assistant?
    Clarence Daily
  23. Early radiaton injuries were cause by? (2 things)
    Low energy tubes and long exposure times
  24. Early and common injuries? (3)
    • Erythema (skin damage)
    • Alopecia (hair loss)
    • Anemia (low red blood cell count)
  25. Ampere is...
    the measurement of electric current
  26. When was the Coolidge tube and Snook Transformer introduced and why was this a good thing?
    1910; Decreased amount of low energy electrons and exposure times...

    Number of injuries decreased
  27. What does NCRP stand for and what did they establish? When did this happen?
    National Council on Radiation Proetction and Measurements... established occupational and non-occupational exposure limits ; 1987
  28. What is the ICRP and when was it created?
    1966; International Commission on Radiological Protection
  29. 3 Cardinal Rules of Radiation Protection
    • Time
    • Distance
    • Shielding
  30. 2 Primary devices that minimize radiation exposure...
    • -Filtration
    • -Collimation
  31. Examples of Protective Apparel and Protective Barriers...
    • -Lead aprons, lead gloves, thyroid shield, gonadal shield
    • -Lead-lined walls or glass
  32. When should you use gonadal shields?
    On anyone who is of child-bearing age...

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