Describe the appearance and indicate the causes for hemolysis
Causes: excess pressure when drawing blood, rough handling, injecting blood too fast into tube, moisture in syringe or tube, intravascular problems (osmotic imbalance, hemolytic bacteria, incompatible transfusion, autoimmune disease)
Describe the appearance and indicate the causes for icterus
Appearance: Brownish yellow
Causes: Hemolyic anemia, liver problems, cholestasis (blockage of bile and backs up into the blood stream)
How will excitement affect CBC results?
it will cause an increase in RBC, WBC, platelets, and glucose
What does the purple-top contain? What is it used for? What liquid would result from spinning it down?
Contains: potassium EDTA
Used for: mammalian hematology
What does the green-top contain? What is it used for? What liquid would result from spinning it down?
Contains: heparin (lithium and sodium)
Used for: avain and reptile hematology
What does the blue-top contain? What is it used for? What liquid would result from spinning it down?
Contains: sodium citrate
Used for: coagulation profiles
What does the red-top contain? What is it used for? What liquid would result from spinning it down?
Used for: when we need serum
How to determine the maximum amount of blood that should be taken from a dog? From a cat?
Multiply the weight in kilograms by either 70 (cat) or 90 (dog)
Then multiple that number by 0.20
the study of cells
the study of serum
the study of what cells look
the study of toxins in the body
the study of poop
What should be placed on the patient's skin between a venipuncture site and your finger, after you have drawn blood?
clean dry cotton
In which domestic species is the ear vein commonly used for venous access?
In which species is the tail vein commonly used for venous access?
rats and cows
In which species is the jugular vein commonly used for venous access?
horse, dog, cat, cow
In which species is the vena cava commonly used for venous access?
Are vacutainer sleeves reusable?
List four ways to fill a capillary tube
from needle hub
from syringe & needle
What are the problems with clipping a toenail for blood collection?
painful for the patient and hard to get the bleeding to stop
What does plasma contain that serum does not?
clotting factors and fibrinogen
What is the difference between a red-top and a tiger-top tube?
a tiger top tube has a serum separator to make drawing off the serum easier
How long should whole blood in a red-top tube sit prior to spinning it down?
20 minutes to allow it to clot
How long should the blood be spun down?
Why must you avoid freezing cells?
it causes the RBC to lyse
Which anticoagulant is preferred for mammalian blood smears?
How full should you fill a vacutainer that contains an anticoagulant? Why?
full to within 10% of capacity
because if not then the blood will become diluted with the anticoagulant
Why is heparin not good for mammalian hematology?
it causes the WBC to distort and the platelets to clump
If you can't run bloodwork immediately, what should you do with the sample and why?
put it in the refrigerator to reduce artifactual changes in the blood