Lab Testing.txt

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  1. what are the purposes for lab testing?
    • aid in diagnosis
    • evaluate patients condition
    • evaluate effects of treatment
    • prognostic indicator
  2. list the tests that we can run
    cell counts, morphology, chemistries, cytology, coprology (poop), serology (serum), culture & sensitivity, toxicology
  3. where are the different blood collection sites
    jugular vein, cephalic vein, wing vein, femoral/saphenous vein, ear vein, caudal (tail) vein, toe nail
  4. how much blood can we take?
    up to 20% of total blood volume
  5. what is a dogs total blood volume
  6. what is a cats total blood volume?
  7. why do vacutainers give a better sample?
    • once thru needle
    • less trauma to cells
  8. what is plasma?
    the liquid portion of whole (unclotted) blood
  9. what does anticoagulant used to prevent?
  10. what does plasma contain?
    soluble clotting factors and fibrinogen
  11. what is serum?
    whole blood, no anticoagulant
  12. to get serum or plasma...
    • centrifuge blood tube at moderate speed for 10 minutes
    • draw off the plasma or serum
    • label the tube with patient ID, doctor name, and date
    • then use, refrigerate, or freeze
  13. define heparin
    blocks numerous clotting factors from working
  14. what should we NOT use heparin for?
    blood smears
  15. what is the lavender top tube used for?
    anticoagulant...keeps blood from clotting by binding the calcium together
  16. what is EDTA?
    lavender top tube
  17. when should a smear be made when using an EDTA? and why?
    • within 30 minutes
    • bc artifacts will appear in the WBC, platelets will clump together, & vacuoles will appear in the lymphocytes and they will be confused with monocytes
  18. what is in the green top tube?
  19. what animals are the green top tubes mainly used for?
    avian and reptiles
  20. what are the green top tubes not used for mammalian hematology?
    causes the platelets to clump and distorts the WBC
  21. what are the two types of heparin?
    lithium and sodium
  22. what are the blue top tubes and what are they used for?
    • sodium citrate
    • used for coagulation profiles
  23. what are the red top tubes used for?
    • used when we need serum
    • no anticoagulant in them
  24. what are the tiger top tubes?
    • serum-separator tubes
    • makes drawing off serum easier
  25. what can cause inaccurate results?
    • poor sample obtained
    • poorly preserved sample
    • incorrect sample used
    • sample handled incorrectly
    • equipment malfunction
    • clerical errors
  26. what are the advantages to in-house testing?
    • fast results
    • you can control the sample
    • fewer artifactual changes
  27. what are the disadvantages of in-house testing?
    • requires an investment in equipment and supplies
    • requires trained staff
    • must have quality control procedures
  28. what are the advantages to outside labs?
    • some tests can be done cheaper
    • only place for certain tests
    • experts are available for consulting
  29. what are the disadvantages for outside labs?
    • takes time to get results
    • tests or reports may be lost
    • usually need a large volume of blood to do tests
  30. List the different sites for blood collection commonly used in dogs, cats, cows, rats, rabbits, and horses.
    • Dog - jugular, cephalic, and lateral saphenous
    • Cat - jugular, cephalic, and medial saphenous
    • Cow - jugular and caudal (tail)
    • Rat - caudal (tail)
    • Rabbit - ear
    • Horses - jugular
  31. What are the differences between plasma and serum?
    • plasma has clotting factors and serum does not
    • to get serum you have to let blood coagulate
  32. How can a negative result be beneficial diagnostically?
    it gives you a rule out diagnoses (rules out different possibilites)
  33. List the advantages of in-house testing
    • fast results
    • less artifactual changes
    • we can control the sample
  34. List the disadvantages of in house testing
    • expensive equipment needs to be purchased
    • must have trained personnel
    • must have quality control procedures
  35. List the advantages of outside lab testing
    • some tests may be cheaper
    • there are some tests that can only be performed in an outside lab
    • experts available for consulting
  36. List the disadvantages for an outside lab testing
    • takes time to get results
    • tests or results may be lost or mixed up
    • need larger samples of blood
  37. Describe the appearance and indicate the causes of lipemia
    • Appearance: white or pinkish-white
    • Causes: postprandial sample, liver disease, diabetes mellitus
  38. Describe the appearance and indicate the causes for hemolysis
    • Appearance: red
    • Causes: excess pressure when drawing blood, rough handling, injecting blood too fast into tube, moisture in syringe or tube, intravascular problems (osmotic imbalance, hemolytic bacteria, incompatible transfusion, autoimmune disease)
  39. Describe the appearance and indicate the causes for icterus
    • Appearance: Brownish yellow
    • Causes: Hemolyic anemia, liver problems, cholestasis (blockage of bile and backs up into the blood stream)
  40. How will excitement affect CBC results?
    it will cause an increase in RBC, WBC, platelets, and glucose
  41. What does the purple-top contain? What is it used for? What liquid would result from spinning it down?
    • Contains: potassium EDTA
    • Used for: mammalian hematology
    • Result: plasma
  42. What does the green-top contain? What is it used for? What liquid would result from spinning it down?
    • Contains: heparin (lithium and sodium)
    • Used for: avain and reptile hematology
    • Result: plasma
  43. What does the blue-top contain? What is it used for? What liquid would result from spinning it down?
    • Contains: sodium citrate
    • Used for: coagulation profiles
    • Results: plasma
  44. What does the red-top contain? What is it used for? What liquid would result from spinning it down?
    • Contains: nothing
    • Used for: when we need serum
    • Results: serum
  45. How to determine the maximum amount of blood that should be taken from a dog? From a cat?
    • Multiply the weight in kilograms by either 70 (cat) or 90 (dog)
    • Then multiple that number by 0.20

    • Cat: 70kg/ml
    • Dog: 90kg/ml
  46. Define cytology
    the study of cells
  47. Define serology
    the study of serum
  48. Define morphology
    the study of what cells look
  49. Define toxicology
    the study of toxins in the body
  50. Define coprology
    the study of poop
  51. What should be placed on the patient's skin between a venipuncture site and your finger, after you have drawn blood?
    clean dry cotton
  52. In which domestic species is the ear vein commonly used for venous access?
  53. In which species is the tail vein commonly used for venous access?
    rats and cows
  54. In which species is the jugular vein commonly used for venous access?
    horse, dog, cat, cow
  55. In which species is the vena cava commonly used for venous access?
  56. Are vacutainer sleeves reusable?
  57. List four ways to fill a capillary tube
    • from vein
    • from vacutainer
    • from needle hub
    • from syringe & needle
  58. What are the problems with clipping a toenail for blood collection?
    painful for the patient and hard to get the bleeding to stop
  59. What does plasma contain that serum does not?
    clotting factors and fibrinogen
  60. What is the difference between a red-top and a tiger-top tube?
    a tiger top tube has a serum separator to make drawing off the serum easier
  61. How long should whole blood in a red-top tube sit prior to spinning it down?
    20 minutes to allow it to clot
  62. How long should the blood be spun down?
    10 minutes
  63. Why must you avoid freezing cells?
    it causes the RBC to lyse
  64. Which anticoagulant is preferred for mammalian blood smears?
  65. How full should you fill a vacutainer that contains an anticoagulant? Why?
    • full to within 10% of capacity
    • because if not then the blood will become diluted with the anticoagulant
  66. Why is heparin not good for mammalian hematology?
    it causes the WBC to distort and the platelets to clump
  67. If you can't run bloodwork immediately, what should you do with the sample and why?
    put it in the refrigerator to reduce artifactual changes in the blood
Card Set
Lab Testing.txt
Lab Tech
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