BIOL 203

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BIOL 203
2010-04-02 02:59:35
Exam 2

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  1. Structure of prokaryotic DNA?
    one supercoiled circular chromosome found in nucleiod
  2. 4 major differences between eukaryotes and prokaryotes
    • -Eukaryotes are larger
    • -Eukaryotes have chromosomes in nucleus
    • -eukaryotes have lots of internal membrance
    • -eukaryotes have a diverse and dynamic cytoskeleton
  3. Euakryote nucleus is surrounded by?
    nuclear envelope
  4. ribosomal RNA synthesis occurs in?
  5. Where are ribosomes found
    cytosol - fluid part of cytoplasm
  6. ribosomes are composed of?
    RNA and protein
  7. Rough ER function
    Protein synthesis
  8. Rough ER structure
    membrane bound tubes and sacks
  9. function of peroxisomes
  10. function of lysosomes
    storage or waste processing
  11. What 3 processes deliver materials to the lysosome
    • -phagocytosis
    • -autophagy
    • -receptor-mediated endocytosis
  12. pinocytosis
    brings fluid into the cell
  13. function of mitochondria
    cellular respiration
  14. structure of mitochondria
    • -2 membranes
    • -inner membrane has cristae
  15. solution in cristae of mitochondial inner membrane
    mitochindrial matrix
  16. Chloroplasts structure
    membrane bound vesicles called thylakoids
  17. chloroplasts function
  18. stacked thylakoids
  19. solution outside thylakoids
  20. nuclear pores
    openings within nuclear envelope
  21. how many membranes does the nuclear envelope have
    2 membranes consisting of a lipid bi-layer each
  22. what kind of signal do proteins going to the nucleus have?
    17-amino acid long NLS
  23. Secretory pathway
    • -protein enters Rough ER, It's synthesized by ribosomes
    • -Protein exits rough ER, Goes ot CIS face of Golgi
    • -protein enters Golgi and is processed as it moves to TRANS face
    • -protein exits Golgi at trans face and goes to destination
  24. Signal Hypothesis
    • -proteins going to endomembrance system have a 20-amino acid long ER sequence
    • -ER signal sequence binds to signal recognition particle
    • -SRP then binds to recepter in ER membrance
  25. how are proteins transferred to and from Golgi?
  26. cytoskeleton structure
    network of fibers
  27. cytoskelton function
    • -provide structure
    • -provide movement
    • -transport materials
  28. 3 cytoskeletal elements
    • -actin filaments
    • -intermediate filaments
    • -microtubules
  29. smalles cytoskeletal elements
    actin filaments a.k.a microfilaments
  30. what polymerizes to form actin filament
    actin molecule
  31. where are actin filaments found
    grouped into long bundles or dense networks, found just inside plasma membrane
  32. function of actin filaments
    • -help define shape
    • -interact with myosin to cause movement
  33. actin-myosin interaction cause what?
    • -cell crawling
    • -cytokinesis
    • -cytoplasmic streaming
  34. function if intermediate filaments?
    structural support
  35. Microtubule function
    • -provide stability
    • -provide movement
    • -provide structural framework for organelles
  36. Microtubule structure
    large, hallow tubes made of tubulin dimers
  37. where do microtubules originate
    Microtubule organization center
  38. microtubule organization center in animals
  39. vesicle transport?
    • -transport vesicles moving throughout cell on microtubule tracks
    • -energy dependant
    • -requires ATP and Kinesin
  40. What is Kinesin
    motor protein that converts chemical energy from ATP to mechanical work
  41. What are flagella
    long, hair like projections from cells involved in movement
  42. bacterial flagella are made of?
  43. euakaryote flagella are made of?
  44. cell wall function
    gives shape and counters turgor pressure
  45. extracellular matrix function
    structural support for cell, helps them stick together
  46. collagen
    most commin ECM fiber, is flexible
  47. signal tranduction pathway
    • -protein binds to receptor at cell surface
    • -signal is transduced by G protein
    • -G protein changes GDP to GTP and becomes active
    • -G protein splits in 2, i part attached to the enzyme
    • -enzyme amplifies by catalyzing secondary messengers
  48. phosphorylation cascade
    activated receptors activate enzymes which activate other enzymes and so on.